kovacic s mod pack mac 1-3 2-4 betting system

off track betting app

Bob used to be considered one of the ihorse betting guide of the best at picks, but nobody has fallen further over recent years than Dr. Bob Sports. Doctor bob sports betting the early s Doctor bob sports betting. Many client now report of and losing streaks after trying his service and his name is slandered across every sports betting forum online. Stop following these loser handicappers, unless you plan on fading their picks. Bob to shame with our daily game day reports that detail all of the information and action from around every active league. This is about strategical investing, not impulsive sports gambling, you need the pros on your side to capitalize on the right opportunity.

Kovacic s mod pack mac 1-3 2-4 betting system strictly betting odds 2021

Kovacic s mod pack mac 1-3 2-4 betting system

Lead concentration in the thoracic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter PM 10 — that part of the inspirable fraction that penetrates into the respiratory tract below the larynx — in the ambient air of Delhi, India, in , was reported to range from 0. Principal component analysis identified three major sources, namely vehicle emissions, industrial emissions and soil resuspension Balachandran et al.

Samples collected from high-exposure areas of Mumbai, India, had higher lead concentrations than those collected in other high-exposure areas of the world including Beijing China , Stockholm Sweden and Zagreb Serbia and Montenegro Parikh et al. A recent report of the Central Pollution Control Board — found concentrations of lead in air in Mumbai, India, to be on the decline. In fact, the introduction of unleaded petrol reduced lead concentrations in ambient air by about half in seven sites throughout India Central Pollution Control Board, — In Semarang, Indonesia, mean urban airborne lead concentrations were found to be 0.

Airborne lead concentrations of 8. After leaded gasoline, lead mining and the smelting and refining of both primary and secondary lead are the next highest sources of lead emissions that can cause contamination of the nearby environment.

The nature and extent of contamination depend on many factors, including the level of production, the effectiveness of emission controls, climate, topography and other local factors. For example, near a smelter in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil, 4-day average values in of 2. A report from China found that lead concentrations in ambient air, plants and soil increased proportionally with proximity to a large primary smelter; air lead concentrations were 1.

Some earlier studies have shown air pollution and soil contamination as far as 10 km from lead smelters Djuric et al. Lead concentration in outdoor air in Latin America and the Caribbean. High concentrations of lead in household dust in the vicinity of lead smelters or mining activity, or from vehicles using leaded gasoline, have been reported see Tables 24 , 25 and Lead concentrations in dust inside houses located in the vicinity of a lead smelter at Cd.

Lead concentration in indoor dust in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data on lead in air in South America are scarce, and refer only to total lead in suspended particles. One study of lead concentrations in incoming Atlantic air masses reaching the north-eastern Brazilian coast in —95 showed concentrations of 1.

Biomass burning, which takes place during the dry season both for forest clearance and for agricultural purposes, can be an important source of lead in rural environments with otherwise low concentrations. Measurements in the Amazon forest during the wet season September—March showed lead concentrations of 0. In an urban area of Taiwan, China, where the winter is cold, lead concentrations in air were reported to be about three times higher in winter 0.

Surveys of lead in air in seven cities in India indicated concentrations ranging from 0. In addition to automobile exhaust, increased fuel burning in the winter and open burning of refuse were identified as sources of lead contamination Table Lead concentrations in indoor air are affected by the presence of smokers, air conditioning and lead-painted surfaces. Lead enters groundwater from natural weathering of rocks and soil, indirectly from atmospheric fallout and directly from industrial sources.

Lead can enter freshwater bodies from municipal sewage, from harbour activities and from lead storage sites and production plants, particularly mining and smelting. In local aquatic environments, pollution can also result from leaching of lead from lead shot, shotgun cartridges and fishing weights WHO, The concentration of lead in surface water is highly variable depending upon the sources of pollution, the lead content of sediments and the characteristics of the system pH, temperature.

An additional and distinct hazard to the water supply is the use of lead piping or lead solder in plumbing systems. Water with low pH and low concentrations of dissolved salts referred to as aggressive or corrosive water can leach substantial quantities of lead from pipes, solder and fixtures ASTDR, Lead-lined reservoirs, cisterns and water tanks can be a major source of lead contamination of drinking-water.

Lead concentrations in surface water, groundwater and tap-water in different geographical regions of the world are presented in Tables 28 — A few examples are detailed below, according to the type of water analysed. Lead concentrations in water in Latin America and the Caribbean. Seawater generally contains low levels of lead. It was estimated that lead concentrations in the ocean were 0. The mean concentration of lead measured at nearly 40 surface-water stations throughout the USA was 3.

Lead concentrations in surface water are typically higher in urban areas than in rural areas US EPA, Lead contamination of groundwater around the Hussain Sagar lake, Hyderabad, India, indicated that the source of pollution was the contaminated lake. The waters of Vasai Creek Maharashtra, India had concentrations of Among six locations along four rivers in central Kalimantan, Indonesia, the highest lead concentrations were found in the Kahayan river 5.

Of various channel, lake and pond waters 7 locations , lake Tundai was found to be by far the most contaminated with lead However, most lead contamination comes from corrosion by-products of lead pipes and lead-soldered joints US EPA, A survey of drinking-water samples taken from various districts in the USA showed that average lead concentrations in water in copper, galvanized and plastic pipes were 9, 4.

These data show that even plumbing that did not use lead solder e. The brass fixtures may account for approximately one-third of the lead in the first-draw water Lee et al. Following an increased volcanic activity that resulted in the release of acid aerosols, Wiebe et al. The use of lead pipes in Uruguay resulted in tap-water concentrations of lead ranging between 0.

The lead concentration in drinking-water in Karachi, Pakistan, was found to be in the range of 3. Gulson et al. Lead reaching surface waters is readily bound to suspended solids and sediments, and sediments from both freshwater and marine environments have been studied for their lead content. Sediments contain considerably higher concentrations of lead than corresponding surface waters, and provide a unique record of the history of global lead fluxes WHO, Concentrations of lead in sediments in Africa, Asia and Latin America are summarized in Tables 29 , 30 and 32 , respectively.

Lead concentrations in fresh water, seawater and sediment in the Canary Islands, Egypt and Nigeria. An analysis of sediments taken from 10 lakes in Pennsylvania indicated that the lead does not principally originate from parent materials in the watershed from the native rocks as a result of acid deposition , but rather from transport of anthropogenic lead through the atmosphere onto the soil surface and subsequent run-off of soil particulates into the lake Case et al.

The main reported sources of lead entering surface-water bodies in Latin America have been metallurgy, smelter and mining effluents, oil refineries and port activities. Mine tailings in Bolivia were responsible for an increase in lead concentrations from 7. Mean concentrations of lead in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were found to range from 0. Most of the lead released into the environment from emissions or as industrial waste is deposited in soil.

Lead-containing wastes result from the processing of ores, the production of iron and steel, the various end-products and uses of lead, and the removal and remediation of lead paint ATSDR, Lead in soil may be relatively insoluble as a sulfate, carbonate or oxide , soluble, adsorbed onto clays, adsorbed and coprecipitated with sesquioxides, adsorbed onto colloidal organic matter or complexed with organic moieties present in soil WHO, The soil pH, the content of humic and fulvic acids and the amount of organic matter influence the content and mobility of lead in soils.

Since acidic conditions favour the solubilization and leaching of lead from the solid phase, acidic soils tend to have lower lead concentrations when analysed as dry soil. Acid rain promotes the release of lead into groundwater. Humic and fulvic acids can also mobilize lead, and certain complex organic molecules can act as chelators of lead WHO, Table 33 shows some sources and amounts of lead released in soils worldwide.

Tables 34 , 35 and 36 summarize data on lead concentration in soils in Latin America, Africa and Asia, respectively. Lead concentrations in soils in Latin America and the Caribbean. Studies carried out in Maryland and Minnesota indicate that within large light-industrial urban settings such as Baltimore, soil lead concentrations are generally highest in inner-city areas, especially where high traffic flows have long prevailed Mielke et al.

It has been suggested that the higher lead concentrations in soil samples taken around houses in the inner city are the result of greater atmospheric lead content from the burning of leaded gasoline in cars and the washdown by rain of building surfaces to which the small lead particles adhere Mielke et al. Lead-based paint can also be a major source of lead in soil. In a study of the association between the concentrations of lead in soil and in blood samples taken from children in urban and rural areas in Louisiana, USA, blood lead concentrations in children appeared to be closely associated with soil lead concentration Mielke et al.

Three prospective studies were conducted in Boston, Baltimore and Cincinnati, USA, to determine whether abatement of lead in soil could reduce blood lead concentrations of children. No significant evidence was found that lead reduction had any direct impact on children's blood lead concentrations in either Baltimore or Cincinnati US EPA, b.

A number of factors appear to be important in determining the influence of soil abatement on blood lead concentrations in children, including the site-specific exposure scenario, the extent of the remediation, and the magnitude of additional sources of lead exposure. Children with pica — a serious eating disorder characterized by repetitive consumption of nonfood items — may be at increased risk for adverse effects through ingestion of large amounts of soil contaminated with lead. It has been estimated that an average child may ingest on average between 20 and 50 mg of soil per day through normal hand-tomouth activity, whereas a child with pica may ingest up to mg of soil per day LaGoy, Davis et al.

The inherent chemical properties of soil-lead adsorption sites may reduce the bioavailability of soil lead compared with that of soluble lead salts and lead compounds ingested without soil and may explain the low blood lead concentrations observed in children in this mining community. A study conducted in Wales, United Kingdom, in an area where lead mining began years ago and ended in the middle of the 20th century, reported concentrations of lead in garden soils 14 times higher than in uncontaminated areas Davies et al.

The frequency of elevated lead concentrations in the blood of pregnant women and young children in this community was also increased above that found in other communities in Australia Wilson et al. The main reported sources of lead in soil in Latin America have been from smelter activities, storage of minerals, glazing of ceramics, and leaded gasoline Table At that time, the smelter had a m high chimney.

In , when tetraethyl lead was still added to gasoline, soil lead concentrations in Mexico City, Mexico, were determined near avenues in different parts of the city. In Argentina, a study of phosphate fertilizers imported from different parts of the world showed lead concentrations between 5. A number of studies have reported soil lead concentrations in the proximity of smelters and mining areas.

A report from China found that lead concentrations in ambient air, plants and soil increased proportionally with proximity to a primary smelter: lead concentration in soil was Globally, by far the largest source of lead emissions into air has been exhaust from motor vehicles using organic lead as an anti-knock agent in gasoline see Section 1.

Furthermore, alkyl lead compounds decompose in the atmosphere to lead oxides through a combination of photolysis and oxidation reactions, over a period ranging from a few hours to a few days ATSDR, Vehicle emissions increase lead concentrations in the surrounding air, and lead compounds adhere to dust particles that settle and increase the lead content of dusts and soils, thus constituting a major source of exposure of the general population.

By comparing ratios of stable lead isotopes in remote areas with those characteristic of lead from industrial sources in various regions, investigators have shown that the lead found in pristine areas such as Greenland and Antarctica originated from motor vehicle exhaust from North America Rosman et al.

Nriagu and Pacyna estimated that in mobile sources worldwide contributed tonnes of lead to the atmosphere. This compares with total estimated emissions to the atmosphere from all sources of — tonnes. By , global emissions from leaded gasoline had been reduced to 40 tonnes and are still declining, as permissible lead contents of gasoline have been lowered and unleaded gasoline has replaced, or is replacing, leaded fuel in many countries see Table However, in a number of countries, leaded gasoline is still in use see Section 1.

Table 37 shows lead concentrations in gasoline over time in a number of countries worldwide. Lead concentrations in gasoline, air and blood in adults and children worldwide. Leaded gasoline has been banned in India with effect from February In Pakistan, the addition of lead to gasoline was reduced in —99 from 0.

In , a directive by the Government of Pakistan established a permissible limit of 0. This resulted in a decrease of annual atmospheric lead concentrations from an average of 1. In Mexico City, the concentration was 1. Between and , the city of Caracas, Venezuela, showed a decrease in the annual average atmospheric lead concentrations from 4. However, this is still higher than the value of 1. According to a survey carried out by the Pan American Center for Human Ecology and Health in Mexico in , lead concentrations in gasoline in participating Latin American and Caribbean countries ranged from 1.

Data on lead in gasoline, lead in air and blood lead concentrations of the local population in a number of countries worldwide are summarized in Table An analysis of 17 published studies from five continents Thomas et al. As the use of lead in gasoline was phased out, blood lead concentrations across study locations converged to a median of 3. In the past, the use of lead pigments in paints was widespread, but it is now restricted in many countries.

Dusting, flaking or peeling of paint from surfaces are major sources of lead contamination of surface dust and soil near houses, and contribute to the amount of lead in household dust. Exposure occurs not only through the direct ingestion of flaking and chalking paint but also through the inhalation of dust and soil contaminated with paint. Renovation and remodelling activities that disturb lead-based paints in homes can produce significant amounts of lead dust which can be inhaled or ingested.

Removal of lead-based paint from surfaces by burning gas torch or hot air gun , scraping or sanding can result, at least temporarily, in high levels of exposure for residents in these homes ATSDR, Lead from paint can constitute the major source of lead exposure, in particular for young children, and can even make a significant contribution to blood lead concentrations in children living in areas that are highly contaminated with lead, e.

Intervention programmes to reduce exposures to lead in house dust have been reported Lanphear et al. In a study by Schmitt et al. A state-wide study in Minnesota, USA, found that exterior lead-based paint was the major source of contamination in severely contaminated soils located near the foundations of private residences, while lead aerosols accounted for virtually all of the contamination of soils at some distance from the houses. Contamination due to lead-based paint was found to be highly concentrated over a limited area, while lead aerosols were less concentrated but more widespread Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, See also Section 1.

Many countries have restricted the use of lead in paint. Leroyer et al. A lead concentration greater than 0. However, the lead content of paint remains unregulated in some countries Nriagu et al. Ten per cent of lead metal used in India was reported to be used in the manufacture of paint, and wherever such paint is used there will be the potential for human exposure to lead van Alphen, Results of a study of lead content of paint used in India are shown in Table The lead in these paints was predominantly in the form of lead chromates van Alphen, A major source of lead for non-occupationally exposed adults is food and drink.

The amount of lead intake from food is dependent on the concentration of lead in soil, air, water and other sources. Lead present in soils is taken up by food crops. Roots usually contain more lead than stems and leaves, while seeds and fruits have the lowest concentrations.

In contrast, particulate lead present in air may adhere tenaciously to leafy vegetables. Leaves collected in or near urban areas have been shown to contain substantially elevated concentrations of lead. The use of leaded gasoline or the proximity of industries producing ambient emissions of lead can greatly influence lead concentrations in foodstuff.

Therefore, caution is required with regard to concentrations of foodborne lead when extrapolating between regions and countries WHO, Typical lead concentrations in foodstuffs from some 30 countries are given in Table 39 Galal-Gorchev, a.

Lead concentrations of specific food items available in various countries are given in Tables 46 — Studies from various countries on dietary lead intake by children and adults are listed in Tables 50 — The section below presents a variety of specific sources of lead contamination in food. Estimated lead concentrations in foods and dietary lead intake in Japan, Estimated respiratory and dietary intakes of lead in various cities in Asia. Lead concentrations in foods in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Elevated concentrations of lead in the blood of cattle grazing near a lead smelter have been reported, although no inferences regarding lead in beef were made. Mean lead concentrations were highest in animals grazing near the smelter and decreased with increasing distance. Evidence has been shown for transfer of lead to milk and edible tissue in cattle poisoned by licking the remains of storage batteries which had been burned and left in a pasture Oskarsson et al.

Concentrations of lead in muscle of eight acutely-sick cows that were slaughtered ranged from 0. Eight cows showing no acute symptoms of poisoning were followed for 18 weeks. The mean lead concentration in milk 2 weeks after exposure was 0.

There was an initial rapid decrease in lead concentrations in milk during the first 6 weeks after exposure, after which the concentrations remained constant or increased slightly. Two cows calved at 35 and 38 weeks post-exposure. The lead concentration in the blood of the cows at the time of delivery was high, which suggests mobilization of lead during the later stages of gestation and delivery.

Lead concentrations in colostrum were increased compared to those in mature milk samples taken 18 weeks after exposure i. Lead poisoning was observed in cattle and buffalo grazing near a primary lead—zinc smelter in India. Animals from the same pasture but without any history of clinical signs suggestive of lead poisoning had lower blood lead concentrations than the affected animals, but nonetheless higher than those reported for cattle in rural and urban areas of India Dwivedi et al.

The highest concentrations of lead were found in the liver and kidney, and lower concentrations in muscle and lung. A lead concentration of 2. Recreational and subsistence hunters consume a wide range of species including birds and mammals, some of which represent significant exposure to toxic agents, including lead.

Wild game may be contaminated through the environment or from lead bullets ingested by or embedded in the animal Burger et al. Acidic foods tend to leach more lead, but certain foods such as corn and beans are associated with greater release of lead than would be predicted from their acidity alone. Also, oxygen appears to accelerate the release of lead from food containers WHO, If food is stored in ceramic or pottery-ware that is lead-glazed and fired in a low-temperature kiln, lead can migrate from the glaze into the food.

The glazing process uses a flux, a material that, at high temperatures, reacts with and helps dissolve the components of the glaze. Lead oxide is commonly used as flux. Factors determining whether, and to what extent, lead will migrate include the temperature and extent of firing of the pottery during the manufacturing process, the temperature and duration of food storage, the age of the pottery and the acidity of the food.

It is extremely difficult to quantify the extent of such exposures in view of variations in manufacturing processes and quality control practised in the country of origin; however, exposure can be quite significant, particularly to infants WHO, Gersberg et al. Several studies have shown contamination of foods and beverages from lead used in the manufacture or repair of metal vessels.

Zhu et al. After boiling, the water contained 0. Lead concentrations have also been shown to increase when water is boiled in kettles that contain lead in their heating elements. Lead-contaminated water may also contribute to foodborne lead where large volumes of water are used in food preparation and cooking, e. Trace metals, including lead, have been detected in human breast milk, thus breast-feeding could deliver lead to an infant. The reader is referred to Section 4. Analysis of human milk samples taken across Canada showed a mean lead concentration of 1.

The concentration in 3-day postpartum milk samples from women in Malaysia averaged Concentrations of lead in human milk vary considerably depending on the mother's exposure and occupation. The concentrations were very similar in colostrum and mature milk, and correlated well with blood lead concentrations Wang et al. Maternal bone and diet appeared to be the major sources of lead in breast milk.

Lead has also been reported in home-prepared reconstituted infant formula breastmilk substitute. Canning foods in lead-soldered cans may increase concentrations of lead in foods 8—fold. In , for example, the lead concentration in evaporated milk in lead-soldered cans was 0.

The lead content in canned foods in the USA dropped from an overall mean of 0. The production and use of three-piece lead-soldered cans ceased in in the USA. This value does not include lead in water used to prepare infant formula. Mean intakes far in excess of the PTWI were obtained in studies carried out in areas with high lead content in tap-water Galal-Gorchev, b.

Lozeena, a bright orange powder from Iraq used to colour rice and meat, can contain 7. Lead may leach from lead crystal decanters into the liquids they contain. Lead was also found to elute from lead crystal wine glasses within minutes. In addition to contamination from lead crystal glass, contamination of alcoholic beverages with lead may occur in several ways.

For example, from lead solder used to repair casks or kegs and tap lines, from lead capsules used as seals on wine bottles, or from residues of lead arsenate pesticides in soils. Alcoholic beverages tend to be acidic and there is the possibility for large amounts of lead to dissolve during preparation, storage or serving WHO, Wai et al. The analysis of table wines originating from many countries and sold in the USA is summarized in Table Distribution of lead concentrations in table wines produced worldwide.

Sherlock et al. The higher lead concentrations in draught beers are thought to be due to the draught-dispensing equipment which may contain brass or gunmetal, both of which contain low but significant amounts of lead. Illicit 'moonshine' whiskey made in stills composed of lead-soldered parts e.

In general, alcoholic beverages do not appear to be a significant source of lead intake for the average person. The uptake and accumulation of lead by aquatic organisms from water and sediment are influenced by various environmental factors such as temperature, salinity and pH, as well as humic and alginic acid content of the sediment. In contaminated aquatic systems, only a minor fraction of lead is dissolved in the water. Lead in fish is accumulated mostly in gill, liver, kidney and bone.

In contrast to inorganic lead compounds, tetraalkyllead is rapidly taken up by fish and rapidly eliminated after the end of exposure WHO, The Fish and Wildlife Service in the USA reported on the concentration of selected metals in composite samples of whole fish collected at stations nationwide in — For lead, the geometric mean was 0.

Recreational and subsistence fishers consume larger quantities of fish and shellfish than the general population and frequently fish the same waterbodies routinely. Thus, these populations are at greater risk of exposure to lead and other chemical contaminants if the waters they fish are contaminated.

Ingestion of lead is also a matter of concern in regular consumers of seafood produced near industrial areas such as in All Saints Bay and Ribeira do Iguape in Brazil Tavares, a , b , as well as in Uruguay Romieu et al. Rice is an important source of lead intake, particularly in east and south-east Asia where rice is a staple component of the diet.

Lead concentrations in rice consumed in some areas in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America are summarized in Table In a study performed by Watanabe et al. Lead concentrations in rice consumed in various countries. Cereals other than rice, e. Lead intake from rice in Japan was found to be 1.

The contribution of lead in rice and cereal products to the total dietary intake of lead in southern India varies among different socioeconomic groups, based on occupation and choice of consumption. It has been suggested that rice is the major source of lead among the rural and economically-deprived populations, but sources of dietary lead appeared to be more diverse in the urban middle-class and the economically-privileged Srikanth et al.

Estimates of daily dietary intakes of lead by adults and children worldwide are presented in Table The available data indicate a general decrease in those areas where the concentration of lead in gasoline has decreased and those where a concerted effort has been made to avoid lead-soldered cans for food storage Bolger et al.

Similar decreases in other countries are expected to occur when similar actions to eliminate these sources of lead exposure are taken. Dietary lead intake by adult women in several Asian cities, in comparison with amounts of lead inhaled, is presented in Table The ratio of dietary to total lead intake varied primarily as a reverse function of the lead concentration in atmospheric air Ikeda et al. Lead occurs naturally in plants both from deposition and uptake; there is a positive linear relationship between lead concentrations in soil and in plants.

Lead concentrations in grass and water plants in Asia are shown in Table Lead concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic plants in Asia. Currently, lead-contaminated soils are being remediated by a variety of engineered technologies such as isolation and containment, mechanical separation, pyrometallurgical separation, the use of permeable treatment walls, and by soil flushing and soil washing, but these methods are expensive and not feasible at all sites Mulligan et al.

Phytoremediation — the use of plants for removal of pollutants and restoration of the environment — is an emerging clean-up technology for which various reviews provide information on important aspects Salt et al. For lead remediation, phytoextraction is the more attractive and much better studied method.

Phytoextraction is the uptake of metal by roots and its accumulation in the part of the plant above ground, i. Plants that are capable of accumulating more metal than 0. There are various reports concerning accumulation and phytoextraction of lead Table The basic problems with lead phytoextraction are the low bioavailability of lead in soil and its poor translocation from root to shoot. Of all toxic heavy metals, lead is the least phytoavailable.

Water-soluble and exchangeable lead that is readily available for uptake by plants constitutes only about 0. Soil properties influence its uptake and translocation. In addition, only a few higher plants are known to hyperaccumulate lead, mainly owing to the very low translocation of lead from the root to the shoot. Piechalak et al. To overcome these problems, a chelate is used to increase uptake rate and to increase lead translocation from roots to shoots.

Of the many chelates, EDTA has been found to be the most appropriate. EDTA solubilizes soil lead and increases its translocation from root to shoot. It has also been shown to increase rate of transpiration, an important factor in lead phytoextraction Wu et al. However, there are concerns about side-effects associated with chelate application. Lead EDTA easily percolates through the soil profile and causes groundwater pollution.

A number of plants used in phytoremediation are crop plants see Table 53 and thus there is a potential risk that plants grown as part of phytoremediation programmes will reenter the food chain. Furthermore, a number of algae and other plant species accumulate lead. Such species, if ingested by fish, could also re-cycle lead into the food chain. Recently, a study presented the development of a plant genetically modified to accumulate lead, which seems promising for phyto-remediation Gisbert et al.

Phytoremediation does have its limitations. It is a slower process than the traditional methods. Plants remove or degrade only small amounts of contaminants each growing season, so it can take several decades to clean up a site adequately. There are limits to plant growth such as temperature, soil type and availability of water. Lastly, most plants are unable to grow on heavily-contaminated soils, thus only lightly-contaminated soils can be phytoremediated. Table 54 presents some data on lead concentrations in other sources of exposure.

Some traditional medicines and customs have been found to result in exposure to high concentrations of lead, most of which cannot be quantified with any degree of accuracy. Rather than occurring as trace ingredients or trace contaminants, various lead compounds are used as major ingredients in traditional medicines in numerous parts of the world Trotter, Lead concentrations in some traditional and complementary medicines are shown in Table The source of lead was thought to be the red dye used to colour the pills.

Latin-American countries also report the use of traditional medicines with high lead concentrations. Hair dyes and some cosmetics may contain lead compounds. Lead acetate is soluble in water and easily transferred to hands and other surfaces during and following application of a hair dye product. In addition, lead is transferred by hand to mouth of the person applying the product, and to any other surface comb, hair dryer, outside of product container, counter top that comes into contact with the product.

Some traditional eye cosmetics produced locally may contain lead compounds, and their application, also to children, may result in lead exposure. Patel et al. Cosmetics used by Chinese opera actors may also contain lead Lai, Firing-range instructors and employees may be exposed to high concentrations of lead and may show elevated blood lead concentrations see Section 1. A lead poisoning hazard for young children exists in certain vinyl miniblinds that have had lead added to stabilize the plastic.

Over time, the plastic deteriorates to produce lead dust that can be ingested when the blinds are touched by children who then put their hands in their mouths Consumer Product Safety Commission, ; Norman et al. Blood lead concentrations resulting from exposure to a variety of specific sources, reported mainly as case reports, are presented in Table Blood lead concentrations from various sources of exposure.

Blood lead concentration is the most commonly used estimate of exposure to lead in the general population. Numerous reports show blood lead concentrations declining over time in many parts of the world, thereby validating global efforts to reduce lead exposures. Representative data on blood lead concentrations are presented by region in Tables 57 — 64 , and in the text by population subgroup: adults, pregnant women and neonates, and children.

Lead concentrations in blood in adults and children in central and eastern European countries. Data from central and eastern Europe show relatively high levels of background exposure to lead at the time of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union Table There have been concerted efforts to lower exposure by phasing out the use of leaded gasoline and by controlling emissions from industries Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Concentrations were higher in men than in women, and higher in Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites.

In general, blood lead concentrations in adults increase slowly with age Pirkle et al. Lead concentrations in blood in adults and children in the USA. Lead concentrations in the general population in several countries in Africa are summarized in Table Lead concentrations in blood in the general population in some countries in Africa.

Reports from several Asian countries of blood lead concentrations in adults with no known occupational exposure to lead and no exposure to heavy traffic are summarized in Table One study used urinary lead concentrations to monitor lead exposure in Japan. A substantial decrease in urinary lead was reported over the last 13 years. The amounts of lead excreted geometric means in h urine samples were 4. Lead concentrations in blood in adults in the general population in Asia.

Blood lead concentrations in adults in Australia are summarized in Table As observed in other parts of the world, concentrations have declined in the general population over the past two decades. Lead concentrations in blood in adults and children in Australia. Lead concentrations were measured in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood from 50 parturient women at delivery in a hospital in Athens, Greece.

The authors concluded that the placenta demonstrates a dynamic protective function that is amplified when maternal blood lead concentrations are increased Dussias et al. Rabinowitz and Needleman reported an umbilical cord blood lead concentration of 6. In a study conducted at a medical centre in South Central Los Angeles, one of the most economically-depressed regions in California, USA, maternal blood lead concentrations in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly higher in a group of immigrant women geometric mean, 2.

Years living in the USA was the most powerful predictor of blood lead concentration. In a study conducted in the United Arab Emirates, blood samples were collected from mothers of 23 different nationalities and from their neonates cord blood. Mean maternal blood lead concentration was There are several studies showing high blood lead concentrations in pregnant women in India Saxena et al. The mean blood lead concentration in a cohort of pregnant women living in the slums of Lucknow, north India, was Blood lead concentration was not associated with age, height, weight, gestation, or history of abortion, although it was higher with higher parity.

Women living in inner-city neighbourhoods with heavy vehicular traffic had mean blood lead concentrations significantly higher than those living in other neighbourhoods Awasthi et al. In another study conducted in Lucknow, India, the mean maternal blood lead concentration was significantly higher in cases of abnormal delivery No significant difference in placental blood, cord blood and fetal membrane lead concentrations was observed between cases of normal and abnormal deliveries Saxena et al.

Data on blood lead concentrations in children are presented in Tables 57 — 59 and 61 — Mean blood lead concentrations among children in the urban, rural and lead-smelter areas varied between 6. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. The five children who lived within m of the lead smelter had a mean blood lead concentration of 9.

In a study carried out in Sweden, blood samples were obtained from children living in an urban or rural area or near a smelter during the period — The mean blood lead concentration for all locations together decreased from 6. The decrease was statistically significant for all three areas studied Skerfving et al. In Finland, the mean blood lead concentration for the children in two day-care centres in Helsinki was 4. In Belovo, Russian Federation, lead releases from a metallurgy enterprise decreased between and from to 9 tonnes per year, due to almost complete cessation of activity.

In , mean blood lead concentrations in newborn children and their mothers living in the area were The higher concentrations in these children were correlated with the consumption of home-grown products. Lower blood lead concentrations were observed in children whose food came from a distant market Fischer et al. The mean blood lead concentration in children in the USA has dropped dramatically since the late s Brody et al. Data from Phase II of NHANES III October to September indicated that blood lead concentrations in children aged 1—5 years continued to decrease and were more likely to be elevated among those who were poor, non-Hispanic black, living in large metropolitan areas or living in older housing with potential exposure to lead from lead-based paint ; approximately 4.

In addition, 1. The downward trends continued in — CDC, a. For all periods of this study, mean lead concentrations were consistently lower among the older age groups, i. A study assessing the source of lead exposure during early childhood in the USA showed that lead-contaminated floor dust was a major source of lead exposure during early childhood, whereas window sills became an increasingly important source as children stood upright Lanphear et al.

One of the most serious episodes of general population exposure to lead reported in Latin America occurred in Brazil Table No proper air pollution control system was used. Smelter dross solid wastes was distributed free of charge to the neighbouring population and spread over gardens, backyards, schools and streets, and chimney filters from the smelter were used in homes as carpets, bed spreads and rags.

Four cross-sectional studies in children under 9 years of age were conducted in Carvalho et al. Blood lead concentrations were among the highest reported in the world. Most children involved in the last study were born after the smelter closed down in December Five years later, lead concentrations in blood averaged Lead concentrations in blood in children living near the Santo Amaro smelter in Bahia, Brazil.

In Antofagasta, Chile, a study was conducted with children under 7 years of age living around a minerals storage site, 54 living near the port and 75 in non-exposed areas Table Average concentrations of lead in blood of exposed and unexposed children were 8. Lead concentrations in blood in children in Latin America and the Carribean.

The average blood lead concentration was Lead-glazing of ceramics has for many years been a source of exposure of the population of La Victoria, Ecuador, where around 70 kilns operate within an area of km 2. One hundred and sixty-six children aged 4 months to 15 years living in the area and many of them helping their parents in glazing activities had blood lead concentrations ranging from 6. Lead isotope ratios of the soil and blood samples were highly similar and clustered for both study areas, indicating that lead in soil resulting from contamination by the glazing activities is probably one of the main routes of exposure to lead in these children Counter et al.

It should be noted, however, that finger-prick or capillary blood samples were employed in some studies see Section 1. Blood lead concentrations in children in Mongolia Burmaa et al. Wu, Y. Similarly, Zheng et al. Tantanasrikul et al. Wang et al. In a study of children aged 6—10 years residing in 13 locations in Mumbai, India, a correlation coefficient of 0.

The phase-out of leaded gasoline in Indonesia began in Jakarta on 1 July Lead concentrations in the blood of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those in children who lived near a street with little or no traffic. Hashim et al. Urban schoolchildren were found to have higher blood lead concentrations than their rural and semi-urban counterparts, even after controlling for age, sex, parents' education and income levels.

Potentially high levels of lead may occur in the following industries or workplaces: lead smelting and refining industries, battery manufacturing plants, steel welding or cutting operations, construction, painting and printing industries, firing ranges, vehicle radiator-repair shops and other industries requiring flame soldering of lead solder, and gasoline stations and garages.

Epidemiological studies have also reported exposure to organic lead compounds, at a chemical plant in Texas, USA, and at an organic lead manufacturing company in New Jersey, USA. However, there are a number of activities that present a potential for high lead exposure but for which no epidemiological data are available. The most common route of occupational exposure to lead is through inhalation of lead fumes or lead dusts from ambient air, leading to absorption of lead through the respiratory system.

Lead may also be ingested and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The lead concentration in air can be measured as a means of monitoring occupational exposure in work areas. However, occupational exposure is more often inferred from measurement of blood lead concentrations in individual workers. Workers occupationally exposed to lead may carry lead home on their body, clothing and tools. Thus, children of workers exposed to lead can also be at increased risk of exposure.

Occupational exposure to lead in men in New Zealand, — Lead concentrations in workplace air and in the blood of exposed workers for specific job categories are presented in Tables 66 — Whereas lead concentrations in air were reported only in a limited number of studies, blood lead concentrations are available for most studies and the exposure intensity is evaluated in terms of blood lead for the groups of exposed workers.

Lead concentrations in blood of occupationally exposed subjects: lead-acid battery factories. Lead concentrations in blood of occupationally exposed subjects: miscellaneous. The HHE is not necessarily representative of an industry or general work practices, since the inspections and measurements are typically done in response to a request by an employee, an officer of a labour union that represents employees, or any management official on behalf of the employer.

Table 74 presents data from a series of HHE reports where blood and air concentrations of lead have been measured. Blood lead concentrations have been studied most extensively in workers in lead storage-battery factories Table Occupational exposure to lead may occur during the production of lead—acid batteries, when grids are manufactured either by melting lead blocks and pouring molten lead into molds or by feeding rolled sheets of lead through punch presses.

In addition, a lead oxide paste is applied into grid spaces. Workers in lead smelter and refinery operations such as sintering, roasting, smelting and drossing are exposed to lead sulfide, sulfates and oxides. Miners of copper and zinc also are exposed to lead. Battery-recycling workers in secondary smelters are exposed to lead as they convert used batteries and other leaded materials to lead of varying purity. From Table 68 , it appears that the mean blood lead concentrations reported for workers in secondary lead smelters were higher than for workers in other occupations see Tables 66 — Lead concentrations in blood of occupationally exposed subjects: secondary smelter.

Leaded glassware is made by combining lead oxide compounds with molten quartz. This process results in lead fumes and dusts, and glass-blowing is an additional activity that involves potential contact with lead. Lead concentrations in blood of occupationally exposed subjects: leaded glass. Workers repairing vehicle radiators are exposed to lead dusts during radiator cleaning in addition to lead fumes during flame soldering Tharr, Lead concentrations in blood of occupationally exposed subjects: welders and solders.

Welders are exposed to lead in the welding fumes generated by gas metal arc welding of carbon steel. However, in one study, lead concentrations in the welding fumes were found to range from 1. Professional drivers e. Lead concentrations in blood of occupationally exposed subjects: professional drivers and traffic policemen. Lead exposure associated with the discharge of firearms at indoor firing ranges began to be monitored in the early s. Over the last 20 years, numerous exposure assessments have been performed at both indoor and outdoor firing ranges Table Several sources of airborne lead have been identified: fragmentation of bullets during firing; the explosive vaporization of the primer, which can contain both lead styphnate and lead peroxide; and inadequate ventilation of the range Landrigan et al.

Instructors are generally exposed to the highest concentrations of airborne lead and tend to have the highest blood lead concentrations due to their regular duties, which include supervising the range, cleaning and test-firing weapons, and preparing training ammunition from commercially purchased components. A positive correlation was reported between exposure of firearms instructors to elemental lead at covered outdoor firing ranges and increased blood lead concentrations Tripathi et al.

Air and blood lead concentrations measured at indoor and outdoor firing ranges. Several studies have found elevated blood lead concentrations in other occupational settings, such as in employees working in automobile garages. Mean blood lead concentrations in children working in petrol storage bunkers in India for more than one year were almost double People working in arts and crafts may be exposed to lead in paints, ceramic glazes and lead solder used in sculpture and stained glass Hart, ; Fischbein et al.

Newspaper printing has been associated with lead exposure Agarwal et al. Where computerized printing techniques have replaced the traditional printing techniques, however, lead exposure is no longer a significant concern in this profession.

Analysis of lead and lead compounds in various matrices has been reviewed Fitch, Although lead occurs in the environment in the form of a range of inorganic or organic compounds, it is always measured and expressed as elemental lead.

Hip, Groin, and Abdominal Injuries in Handball. Knee Injuries in Handball. Management of Cartilage Injuries in Handball. Foot and Ankle Problems in Handball. Pellegrini, Jon Karlsson. Osteoarthritis in Handball Players. Injury Prevention in Handball. Grethe Myklebust, Mette K. Zebis, Stig H. Zebis, Grethe Myklebust. Shoulder Assessment in Handball Players. Setuain, J. Bencke, J.

Physical Training in Team Handball. The Female Handball Player. The Young Handball Player. Perceptual Expertise in Handball. Doping in Handball. About this book Introduction This book is designed to help improve the medical care of athletes across the world who play team handball — including not only handball itself but also such sports as beach volleyball and mini-handball. It provides concise practical information on the nature of frequently encountered injuries, the management of these injuries, injury prevention, and rehabilitation following treatment.

Individual sections also focus on physiologic, endocrinologic, biomechanical, and nutritional aspects; special considerations in particular groups of players; and psychological issues. The medical needs of a handball team are explained, and guidance offered on preparticipation assessment and screening. All of the authors are leaders in their field. Their excellent teamwork ensures that the book, published in collaboration with ESSKA, will represent a superb, comprehensive educational resource.

ONLINE BETTING SOUTH AFRICA SPORTS

Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model , including quantile regression and survival analysis.

An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity — experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. To begin statistical analysis, Bayesians quantify their confidence in modeling hypotheses with priors.

A prior describes the probability of a certain modeling hypothesis apart from the data. Bayesians should be able to defend their choice of prior to a skeptical audience. Collaboration between evaluators and stakeholders could make their choices…. Two slightly different calculation schemes are put into practice. The first calculation gives results in qualitative agreement with experiments and the second calculation provides remarkable improvements to the first.

A possible explanation of the mechanism for signature inversion of odd-odd nuclei is discussed. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.

Hybrid configuration mixing model for odd nuclei. In this work, we introduce a new approach which is meant to be a first step towards complete self-consistent low-lying spectroscopy of odd nuclei. So far, we essentially limit ourselves to the description of a double-magic core plus an extra nucleon. The model does not contain any free adjustable parameter and is instead based on a Hartree-Fock HF description of the particle states in the core, together with self-consistent random-phase approximation RPA calculations for the core excitations.

We include both collective and noncollective excitations, with proper care of the corrections due to the overlap between them i. As a consequence, with respect to traditional particle-vibration coupling calculations in which one can only address single-nucleon states and particle-vibration multiplets, we can also describe states of shell- model types like 2 particle-1 hole.

We will report results for 49Ca and Sb and discuss future perspectives. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd -A and odd-odd heavy nuclei. The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd -A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 model CFM as in our previous work.

Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei.

These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species.

A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model , designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately.

It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd -nitrogen family approximations. The calculation of odds ratios and relative risks may be required as part of a data analysis exercise.

This paper explains how to set up these calculations in Microsoft Excel from a two by two contingency table. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin. It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio LR.

This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds PO would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling.

This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of i how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and ii by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations.

The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Assessing neural activity related to decision-making through flexible odds ratio curves and their derivatives.

It is well established that neural activity is stochastically modulated over time. Therefore, direct comparisons across experimental conditions and determination of change points or maximum firing rates are not straightforward. This study sought to compare temporal firing probability curves that may vary across groups defined by different experimental conditions. Odds-ratio OR curves were used as a measure of comparison, and the main goal was to provide a global test to detect significant differences of such curves through the study of their derivatives.

An algorithm is proposed that enables ORs based on generalized additive models , including factor-by-curve-type interactions to be flexibly estimated. Bootstrap methods were used to draw inferences from the derivatives curves, and binning techniques were applied to speed up computation in the estimation and testing processes. A simulation study was conducted to assess the validity of these bootstrap-based tests. This methodology was applied to study premotor ventral cortex neural activity associated with decision-making.

The proposed statistical procedures proved very useful in revealing the neural activity correlates of decision-making in a visual discrimination task. Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram EEG. Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory.

Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges 10, possible patterns.

ORP 2. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product ORP as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP ;38 4 — Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies. Odds ratios ORs are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates risk factors of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent.

In situations where the outcome is not rare e. We reviewed all issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the articles examined, 62 7. ORs were presented incorrectly in Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles.

Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs.

Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

Selected control events and reporting odds ratio in signal detection methodology. To know whether the reporting odds ratio ROR using "control events" can detect signals hidden behind striking reports on one or more particular events. We used data of drug use investigations DUIs conducted between and in Japan and domestic spontaneous reports SRs between and We calculated the incidence proportion for various events and selected 20 "control events" with a relatively constant incidence proportion across DUIs and also reported regularly to the spontaneous reporting system.

The "control events" accounted for The ROR using "control events" may detect some hidden signals for a drug with the proportion of "control events" lower than the average. The median of the ratios of the ROR using "control events" to RR was around the unity indicating that "control events" roughly represented the exposure distribution though the range of the ratios was so diverse that the individual ROR might not be regarded as the estimate of RR. The use of the ROR with "control events" may give an adjunctive to the traditional signal detection methods to find a signal hidden behind some major events.

An accurate test for homogeneity of odds ratios based on Cochran's Q-statistic. A frequently used statistic for testing homogeneity in a meta-analysis of K independent studies is Cochran's Q. For a standard test of homogeneity the Q statistic is referred to a chi-square distribution with K-1 degrees of freedom. For the situation in which the effects of the studies are logarithms of odds ratios , the chi-square distribution is much too conservative for moderate size studies, although it may be asymptotically correct as the individual studies become large.

Using a mixture of theoretical results and simulations, we provide formulas to estimate the shape and scale parameters of a gamma distribution to fit the distribution of Q. Simulation studies show that the gamma distribution is a good approximation to the distribution for Q.

Use of the gamma distribution instead of the chi-square distribution for Q should eliminate inaccurate inferences in assessing homogeneity in a meta-analysis. A computer program for implementing this test is provided. This hypothesis test is competitive with the Breslow-Day test both in accuracy of level and in power. Projected shell model study of odd-odd f-p-g shell proton-rich nuclei. We describe the energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states.

Signature splitting and signature inversion in the rotational bands are discussed and are shown to be well described. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen NO sub y in the middle atmosphere stratosphere and mesosphere including the oxidation of nitrous oxide N2O , lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles e.

The dominant production mechanism of NO sub y in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO sub y is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO sub y.

NO sub y has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere months to years , thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO sub y. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO sub y and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO sub y and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio OOR , which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model….

The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution. In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios ORs generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC M association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs.

Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan.

Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. Testing equality and interval estimation of the generalized odds ratio in ordinal data under a three-period crossover design. The crossover design can be of use to save the number of patients or improve power of a parallel groups design in studying treatments to noncurable chronic diseases. We propose using the generalized odds ratio for paired sample data to measure the relative effects in ordinal data between treatments and between periods.

We show that one can apply the commonly used asymptotic and exact test procedures for stratified analysis in epidemiology to test non-equality of treatments in ordinal data, as well as obtain asymptotic and exact interval estimators for the generalized odds ratio under a three-period crossover design.

We further show that one can apply procedures for testing the homogeneity of the odds ratio under stratified sampling to examine whether there are treatment-by-period interactions. We use the data taken from a three-period crossover trial studying the effects of low and high doses of an analgesic versus a placebo for the relief of pain in primary dysmenorrhea to illustrate the use of these test procedures and estimators proposed here.

Previous methodological and applied studies that used binary logistic regression LR for detection of differential item functioning DIF in dichotomously scored items either did not report an effect size or did not employ several useful measures of DIF magnitude derived from the LR model. Equations are provided for these effect size indices. Field curvature correction method for ultrashort throw ratio projection optics design using an odd polynomial mirror surface.

This paper presents a field curvature correction method of designing an ultrashort throw ratio TR projection lens for an imaging system. The projection lens is composed of several refractive optical elements and an odd polynomial mirror surface.

A curved image is formed in a direction away from the odd polynomial mirror surface by the refractive optical elements from the image formed on the digital micromirror device DMD panel, and the curved image formed is its virtual image. Then the odd polynomial mirror surface enlarges the curved image and a plane image is formed on the screen. Based on the relationship between the chief ray from the exit pupil of each field of view FOV and the corresponding predescribed position on the screen, the initial profile of the freeform mirror surface is calculated by using segments of the hyperbolic according to the laws of reflection.

For further optimization, the value of the high-order odd polynomial surface is used to express the freeform mirror surface through a least-squares fitting method. As an example, an ultrashort TR projection lens that realizes projection onto a large 50 in. The optical performance for the designed projection lens is analyzed by ray tracing method.

In the estimation of the odds ratio OR , the conditional maximum-likelihood estimate cMLE is preferred to the more readily computed unconditional one uMLE. However, the exact cMLE does not have a closed form to help divine it from the uMLE or to understand in what circumstances the difference between the two is appreciable. Here, the cMLE is shown to have the same ' ratio of cross-products' structure as its unconditional counterpart, but with two of the cell frequencies augmented, so as to shrink the unconditional estimator towards unity.

The augmentation involves a factor, similar to the finite population correction, derived from the minimum of the marginal totals. Odd -even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models. Sustainable Odds. While probability forecasting has many philosophical and mathematical attractions, it is something of a dishonest nonsense if acting on such forecasts is expected to lead to rapid ruin.

Model -based probabilities, when interpreted as actionable, are shown to lead to the rapid ruin of a cooperative entity offering odds interpreting the probability forecasts at face value. Arguably, these odds would not be considered "fair", but inasmuch as some definitions of "fair odds " include this case, this presentation will focus on "sustainable odds ": Odds which are not expected to lead to the rapid ruin of the cooperative under the assumption that those placing bets have no information beyond that available to the forecast system.

It is argued that sustainable odds will not correspond to probabilities outside the Perfect Model Scenario, that the "implied probabilities" determined from sustainable odds will always sum to more than one, and that the excess of this sum over one reflects the skill of the forecast system, being a quantitative measure of structural model error. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

Objective The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis.

After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption.

These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias.

Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5. Results We included 17 primary studies 11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional in the final meta-analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer.

Increased mortality odds ratio of male liver cancer in a community contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater. Aims: To investigate the association between cancer mortality risk and exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater of a downstream community near a contaminated site. Methods: Death certificates inclusive for the years —97 were collected from two villages in the vicinity of an electronics factory operated between and These two villages were classified into the downstream exposed village and the upstream unexposed according to groundwater flow direction.

Mortality odds ratios MORs for cancer were calculated with cardiovascular-cerebrovascular diseases as the reference diseases. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to estimate the effects of exposure and period after adjustment for age. Results: Increased MORs were observed among males for all cancer, and liver cancer for the periods after 10 years of latency, namely, —89, and — Adjusted MOR for male liver cancer was 2.

Conclusion: The results suggest a link between exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and male liver cancer risk. However, the conclusion is limited by lack of individual information on groundwater exposure and potential confounding factors. Numerous high-throughput omics studies have been conducted in schizophrenia, providing an accumulated catalog of susceptible variants and genes.

The results from these studies, however, are highly heterogeneous. The variants and genes nominated by different omics studies often have limited overlap with each other. There is thus a pressing need for integrative analysis to unify the different types of data and provide a convergent view of schizophrenia candidate genes SZgenes.

In this study, we collected a comprehensive, multidimensional dataset, including brain-expressed genes. The data hosted genome-wide association evidence in genetics eg, genotyping data, copy number variations, de novo mutations , epigenetics, transcriptomics, and literature mining.

Application of MegaOR in the multidimensional data resulted in consensus sets of SZgenes up to , each enriched with dense, multidimensional evidence. We proved that these SZgenes had highly tissue-specific expression in brain and nerve and had intensive interactions that were significantly stronger than chance expectation.

Furthermore, we found these SZgenes were involved in human brain development by showing strong spatiotemporal expression patterns; these characteristics were replicated in independent brain expression datasets. Finally, we found the SZgenes were enriched in critical functional gene sets involved in neuronal activities, ligand gated ion signaling, and fragile X mental retardation protein targets.

In summary, MegaOR analysis reported consensus sets of SZgenes with enriched association evidence to schizophrenia, providing insights into the pathophysiology underlying schizophrenia. Integrability of the odd eight-vertex model with symmetric weights.

In this paper we investigate the integrability properties of a two-state vertex model on the square lattice whose microstates at a vertex always have an odd number of incoming or outcoming arrows. This model was named the odd eight-vertex model by Wu and Kunz J. When the energy weights are invariant under arrow inversion we show that the integrable manifold of the odd eight-vertex model coincides with that of the even eight-vertex model.

The form of the -matrix for the odd eight-vertex model is however not the same as that of the respective Lax operator. Altogether we find that these eight-vertex models give rise to a generic sheaf of -matrices satisfying the Yang—Baxter equations resembling intertwiner relations associated to equidimensional representations. In addition, the 2. Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers.

These data were compared with those of workers manufacturing optical equipment and motorcycles from 1 January to 31 March Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were used as reference diseases, and the age adjusted morbidity odds ratio MOR was calculated.

There were eight cases of primary liver cancer, all with heavy previous exposure to VCM. Another four cases of hepatoma in polyvinyl chloride PVC workers were found in the death registry. Ten out of 11 cases of hepatoma, with detailed medical information, were carriers of hepatitis B virus.

The average latent period 20 years was not different from other studies. Alternative agents of primary liver cancer were largely ruled out, suggesting that the combination of hepatitis B and VCM may lead to primary liver cancer. Further study exploring the synergistic effects of VCM and hepatitis B is also indicated. A note on the use of the generalized odds ratio in meta-analysis of association studies involving bi- and tri-allelic polymorphisms.

The generalized odds ratio GOR was recently suggested as a genetic model -free measure for association studies. However, its properties were not extensively investigated. We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate type-I error rates, power and bias in both effect size and between-study variance estimates of meta-analyses using the GOR as a summary effect, and compared these results to those obtained by usual approaches of model specification.

We further applied the GOR in a real meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease. For bi-allelic polymorphisms, the GOR performs virtually identical to a standard multiplicative model of analysis e. Although there were differences among the GOR and usual approaches in terms of bias and type-I error rates, both simulation- and real data-based results provided little indication that these differences will be substantial in practice for meta-analyses involving bi-allelic polymorphisms.

This gain in power may depend on knowledge of the direction of the effects. For the synthesis of data from bi-allelic variants, the GOR may be regarded as a multiplicative-like model of analysis. The use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful in the tri-allelic case, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations.

The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning DIF in dichotomous items.

A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…. This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning DIF with polytomously scored test items using small samples.

A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and mesosphere. Satellite measurements of the global nitric oxide distribution demonstrating the need for a two dimensional model of odd nitrogen photochemistry and transport in the thermosphere and mesosphere are reviewed. The main characteristics of a new code solving the transport equation for N 4S , N 2D , and N0 are given.

This model extends from pole to pole between 75 and km and reacts to the magnetic activity, the ultraviolet solar flux, and the neutral wind field. The effects of ionization and subsequent odd nitrogen production by high latitude particle precipitation are also included. Preliminary results are illustrated for a magnetically quiet solar minimum period with no neutral wind.

This contribution concerns "deep" or "second-order" uncertainty, such as the uncertainty in our probability forecasts themselves. It asks the question: "Is it rational to take or offer bets using model -based probabilities as if they were objective probabilities? We consider the case where the aim is to provide sustainable odds : not to produce a profit but merely to rationally expect to break even in the long run.

In other words, to run a quantified risk of ruin that is relatively small. Thus the cooperative insurance schemes of coastal villages provide a more appropriate parallel than a casino. A "better" probability forecast would lead to lower premiums charged and less volatile fluctuations in the cash reserves of the village. Note that the Bayesian paradigm does not constrain one to interpret model distributions as subjective probabilities, unless one believes the model to be empirically adequate for the task at hand.

In geophysics, this is rarely the case. When a probability forecast is interpreted as the objective probability of an event, the odds on that event can be easily computed as one divided by the probability of the event, and one need not favour taking either side of the wager.

Here we are using " odds -for" not " odds -to", the difference being whether of not the stake is returned; odds of one to one are equivalent to odds of two for one. The critical question is how to compute sustainable odds based on information from imperfect models. We suggest that this breaks the symmetry between the odds -on an event and the odds -against it.

While a probability distribution can always be translated into odds , interpreting the odds on a set of events might result in "implied-probabilities" that sum to more than one. We ask. Octupole deformation in odd-odd nuclei. Thus in spite of limited spectroscopic information, the ground-state spins suggest the existence of octupole deformation in odd-odd nuclei in the region less than or equal toAless than or equal to We study unpolarized and polarized nucleon structure functions H.

Weigel, L. Gamberg, and H. Reinhardt, Mod. A11 ; Phys. B ;Phys. D55 Alkofer, H. Reinhardt and H. Weigel, Phys. These considerations attempt to merge the parton model description of deep inelastic scattering with the phenomenologically successful picture of baryons as chiral solitons. In addition we report on the calculation of the chiral odd quark distributions L.

Gamberg, H. Technology diffusion in hospitals: a log odds random effects regression model. This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the diffusion of technologies. We distinguish a number of determinants, such as service, physician, and environmental, financial and organizational characteristics of the 60 Dutch hospitals in our sample.

On the basis of this data set on Dutch general hospitals over the period , we conclude that there is a relation between a number of determinants and the diffusion of innovations underlining conclusions from earlier research. Positive effects were found on the basis of the size of the hospitals, competition and a hospital's commitment to innovation.

It appears that if a policy is developed to further diffuse innovations, the external effects of demand and market competition need to be examined, which would de facto lead to an efficient use of technology. For the individual hospital, instituting an innovations office appears to be the most prudent course of action.

High selenium exposure lowers the odds ratios for hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with mercury exposure among Inuit in Canada. Selenium Se has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury Hg. However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet.

To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction MI. Blood Se and Hg were measured, and self-report cardiovascular health outcomes were collected through a questionnaire interview from adults aged 18 and above. The mean age was The geometric means GM of blood Se and total Hg were The crude prevalence of heart attack, stroke and hypertension were 3.

The high Se and low Hg group had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes, except for stroke. These results provide evidence that Se may exhibit a protective effect against Hg on cardiovascular disease. In this article, a general class of special Rasch models for dichotomous item scores is considered.

Although Andersen's likelihood ratio test can be used to test whether a Rasch model fits to the data, the test does not differentiate between special Rasch models. Therefore, in this article, new likelihood ratio tests are proposed for testing…. The relationships between odd - and branched-chain fatty acids to ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations with different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate.

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate F:C on ruminal odd - and branched-chain fatty acids OBCFAs contents and to evaluate the relationships between OBCFA and ruminal fermentation parameters as well as bacterial populations tested by real-time PCR technique. Three rumen-fistulated dry Holstein cows were fed three rations with different dietary F:C ratios F:C; , and The concentrations of C, C, iso-C, iso-C, iso-C and C were higher in the cows fed dietary F:C ratio of than those fed with other two rations.

Correlation and regression analysis showed that ruminal OBCFAs had strong relationships with ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations. In particular, the iso-fatty acids had potential power to predict butyrate and isoacids metabolized in the rumen, whereas the fatty acids with 17 carbon atoms correlated with ruminal NH 3 -N content.

C and its isomers might be used to predict populations of fibrolytic bacteria. Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds " and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them.

Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds , this…. Shell- model method for Gamow-Teller transitions in heavy deformed odd -mass nuclei. A shell- model method for calculating Gamow-Teller GT transition rates in heavy deformed odd -mass nuclei is presented.

The method is developed within the framework of the projected shell model. To implement the computation requirement when many multi-quasiparticle configurations are included in the basis, a numerical advancement based on the Pfaffian formula is introduced. The known log f t data corresponding to the B GT- decay rates of the ground state of Nd to the low-lying states of Pm are well described.

It is further shown that the B GT distributions can have a strong dependence on the detailed microscopic structure of relevant states of both the parent and daughter nuclei. It aims to identify the expected number of failures for a SIS during its lifecycle. Indeed, the fact that the SIS is a system being tested periodically gives the idea to apply Bernoulli trials to characterize the random failure process of a SIS and thus to verify if the PFD Probability of Failing Dangerously experimentally obtained agrees with the theoretical one.

A Stochastic P-temporised Petri net is proposed and serves as a reference model for describing the failure process of a 1oo1 SIS architecture. Simulations of this stochastic Petri net demonstrate that, during its lifecycle, the SIS is rarely in a state in which it cannot perform its mission. Experimental results are compared to Bernoulli trials in order to validate the powerfulness of Bernoulli trials for the modeling of the failures process of a SIS.

The determination of the expected number of failures for a SIS during its lifecycle opens interesting research perspectives for engineers and scientists by completing the notion of PFD. Differences in prescription rates and odds ratios of antidepressant drugs in relation to individual hormonal contraceptives: a nationwide population-based study with age-specific analyses. To examine, among young women, the association of individual hormonal contraceptives, within two broad groupings, with antidepressant therapy.

Data on the total population of women aged in were obtained from the Total Population Register of Statistics Sweden. The proportion of women using both hormonal contraception and antidepressants, and odds ratios ORs for antidepressant use for hormonal contraceptive users versus non-users, were calculated, the latter by logistic regression, for each formulation.

Oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol combined with lynestrenol or drospirenone had considerably higher ORs than other pills. ORs significantly lower than 1 were observed when ethinylestradiol was combined with norethisterone, levonorgestrel or desogestrel.

The association between use of hormonal contraceptives and antidepressant drugs varies considerably within both the combined hormonal contraceptive and the progestin-only groups. Research Report. ETS RR Bounds are established for log cross-product ratios log odds ratios involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log cross-product ratios are provided for unidimensional item response models in general.

Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic 2PL model. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios. Umberger, D. Principal Investigator. Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat.

Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. Correction of odds ratios in case-control studies for exposure misclassification with partial knowledge of the degree of agreement among experts who assessed exposures. Estimates of association between exposures and diseases are often distorted by error in exposure classification. When the validity of exposure assessment is known, this can be used to adjust these estimates.

When exposure is assessed by experts, even if validity is not known, we sometimes have information about interrater reliability. We present a Bayesian method for translating the knowledge of interrater reliability, which is often available, into knowledge about validity, which is often needed but not directly available, and applying this to correct odds ratios OR. The method allows for inclusion of observed potential confounders in the analysis, as is common in regression-based control for confounding.

Our method uses a novel type of prior on sensitivity and specificity. The approach is illustrated with data from a case-control study of lung cancer risk and occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions, in which exposure assessment was made by detailed job history interviews with study subjects followed by expert judgement.

Misclassification-corrected and confounder-adjusted OR obtained with the most defensible prior had a posterior distribution centre of 1. This was on average greater in magnitude than frequentist point estimate of 1. The method yields insights into the degree of exposure misclassification and appears to reduce attenuation bias due to misclassification of exposure while the estimated uncertainty increased.

No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Against All Odds. More than a decade ago, no one held out much hope for the poor, immigrant children at Kennedy Middle School. Nobody thinks that now. This article presents how Kennedy Middle School transformed and beat all the odds to be a "school to watch.

Test scores,…. Microscopic modeling of direct pre-equilibrium emission from neutron induced reactions on even and odd actinides. Direct inelastic scattering to discrete excitations and pre-equilibrium emission are described within a microscopic model. The relevant optical and transition potentials are build considering the JLM folding model. The rearrangement corrections to transition potentials and the contribution of unnatural parity excitations to pre-equilibrium emission are discussed.

A new algorithm is used to estimate the lightning flash rates needed to calculate NOy emission by lightning. This algorithm parameterizes the flash rate in terms of upper tropospheric convective mass flux. Spatial variations in NOy were well captured especially with the stretched-grid run; however, model -calculated peaks due to "stratospheric" NOy are occasionally too large.

The lightning algorithm reproduces the temporally and spatially averaged total flash rate accurately; however, the use of emissions from observed lightning flashes significantly improves the simulation on a few days, especially November 3, , showing that significant uncertainty remains in parameterizing lightning in chemistry and transport models.

Doctors, mental health professionals and child development experts can help. Behavioral treatment of ODD involves Signs of ODD generally begin during preschool years. Top quark polarization and T- odd spin correlations as tools for testing non Standard Model predictions.

These correlations project onto absorptive parts of the scattering matrix which are induced by CP-conserving interactions. In order to estimate the effects of the Standard Model interactions the Quantum Chromodynamics and Higgs boson contributions were calculated to a number of these observables.

Several of them are considered to be useful tools for a detailed study of the tt-bar system at future hadron colliders. An examination of male and female odds ratios by BMI, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx in pooled data from 15 case-control studies. Greater tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption and lower body mass index BMI increase odds ratios OR for oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers; however, there are no comprehensive sex-specific comparisons of ORs for these factors.

We analyzed 2, oral cavity women and 1, men , 2, oropharynx women and 1, men , hypopharynx 96 women and men , and 1, larynx women and 1, men cases from the INHANCE consortium of 15 head and neck cancer case-control studies.

Controls numbered from 7, to 13, subjects, depending on analysis. Analyses fitted linear-exponential excess ORs models. ORs were increased in underweight The importance of exposure rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio OR trends with total exposure, i.

None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects P An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta and Serbia. Is family medicine an international discipline? Comparing diagnostic odds ratios across populations.

This is an international study of the epidemiology of family medicine FM in three practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta and Serbia. Diagnostic associations between common reasons for encounter RfEs and episodes titles are compared and similarities and differences are described and analysed. The relationships between RfEs and episode titles were studied with Bayesian methods.

Distributions of diagnostic odds ratios ORs from the three population databases are presented and compared. Distributions of diagnostic associations between RfEs and episode titles in the Transition Project international populations show remarkable similarities and congruencies in the process of diagnosis from both the RfE and the episode title perspectives.

The congruence of diagnostic associations between populations supports the use of such data from one population to inform diagnostic decisions in another. Differences in the magnitude of such diagnostic associations are significant, and population-specific data are therefore desirable.

We propose that both an international common and a local health care system specific content of FM exist and that the empirical distributions of diagnostic associations presented in this paper are a reflection of both these effects. We also observed that the frequency of exposure to such diagnostic challenges had a strong effect on the confidence intervals of diagnostic ORs reflecting these diagnostic associations. We propose that this constitutes evidence that expertise in FM is associated with frequency of exposure to diagnostic challenges.

A Temporal Ratio Model of Memory. A model of memory retrieval is described. The model embodies four main claims: a temporal memory--traces of items are represented in memory partly in terms of their temporal distance from the present; b scale-similarity--similar mechanisms govern retrieval from memory over many different timescales; c local distinctiveness--performance on a…. In silico approaches and proportional odds model towards identifying selective ADAM17 inhibitors from anti-inflammatory natural molecules.

A particular advantage of the high density of lead is that only relatively thin layers are needed to suppress the transmission of sound Lead Development Association International, e. In many countries, the demand for rolled and extruded lead products declined in the s and s, due in part to a rapid decline in the use of lead pipe see Tables 14 and Lead pipes have not been used in new supplies of domestic water for about 30 years. However, due to their corrosion-resistant properties, they are still used for transport of corrosive chemicals at chemical plants.

Because of its corrosion resistance when in contact with a wide range of industrial and marine environments, soils and chemicals, lead was one of the first materials to be used to provide an impervious sheath on electric cables. Lead can be applied to the cable core in unlimited lengths by extrusion at temperatures that do not damage the most sensitive conductors optical fibres or insulating materials paper or plastics. Lead is pliable and withstands the coiling, uncoiling, handling and bending operations involved in the manufacturing and installation of the cable.

A lead sheath can be readily soldered at low temperatures when cables need to be jointed or new cables installed. With modern screw-type continuous extruders, unjointed submarine power cables as long as km have been produced Lead Development Association International, e. It was used much less extensively in the USA where, during the late s, lead was replaced by alternative materials, generally plastics, as the sheathing material for telephone cables.

Since the mids, however, there has been a gradual decline in the use of lead for cable sheathing in most countries Table By , lead consumption for cable sheathing had fallen to 4. Trend in consumption of lead for cable sheathing in six major consuming countries. By far the largest use of lead—antimony alloys is in batteries. The addition of antimony to lead increases the hardness of the lead, and therefore its resistance to physical damage, without greatly reducing its corrosion resistance Lead Development Association International, e.

Soldering is a method of joining materials, in which a special metal solder is applied in the molten state to wet two solid surfaces and join them on solidification. Solders are classified according to their working temperatures. Soft solders, which have the lowest melting-points, are largely lead—tin alloys with or without antimony, while fusible alloys contain various combinations of lead, tin, bismuth, cadmium and other low melting-point metals.

A substantial proportion of solder is used in electrical or electronic assemblies. The advances made in the electronics industry have required the development of fast and highly-automated methods of soldering. Printed circuit assemblies can be soldered by passing them across a standing wave of continuously-circulating molten solder Lead Development Association International, e.

The use of lead solder in plumbing has declined with the replacement of lead piping by copper tubing and, more recently, as a result of concerns of potential leaching of lead into water supplies. Similarly, concerns of possible danger to health have restricted the use of lead solders in the canning industry, formerly an important market.

Lead and its alloys in metallic form, and lead compounds, are used in various forms of radiation shielding. The shielding of containers for radioactive materials is usually metallic lead see above. Radioactive materials in laboratories and hospitals are usually handled by remote control from a position of safety behind a wall of lead bricks. X-ray machines are normally installed in rooms lined with lead sheet; lead compounds are constituents of the glass used in shielding partitions to permit safe viewing; and lead powder is incorporated into plastic and rubber sheeting materials used for protective clothing Lead Development Association International, e.

A variety of lead alloys are produced for a wide range of applications in various industries. In the s, these alloys accounted for — tonnes of lead used in industrialized countries Table However, the trend in this sector had been one of steady decline during the previous three decades Table 14 , as some uses have been overtaken by technological changes or have been restricted by health and environmental regulations.

The use of terne metal a thin tin—lead alloy coating for corrosion protection, and the addition of lead to brass and bronze to assist in free machining, and in bearing metals to reduce friction and wear in machinery, have declined slowly due to competition from alternative materials such as aluminum and plastics. The market for type metal in the printing industry has largely disappeared as hot metal printing has been replaced by new technology.

In the USA, this use peaked at 30 tonnes in but had fallen to 1— tonnes by the mids and is similarly low in other developed countries International Lead and Zinc Study Group, Trends in consumption of lead for alloys in six major consuming countries. The market for lead pigments and compounds constitutes the second largest use of lead after lead—acid batteries. Besides the six major consuming countries Table 19 , pigments and compounds are also the second most important use of lead in other countries including Brazil, Canada, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain and countries of South-East Asia International Lead and Zinc Study Group, , The use of lead in paints for domestic purposes and in some commercial and industrial applications is now severely restricted or banned in view of the potential health risks caused by exposure to weathered or flaking paint.

However, lead tetraoxide Pb 3 O 4 still retains some of its traditional importance for rust-inhibiting priming paints applied directly to iron and steel in view of its anti-corrosion properties, but faces growing competition from zinc-rich paints containing zinc dust and zinc chromate.

The use of lead carbonate white lead in decorative paints has been phased out. Calcium plumbate-based paints are effective on galvanized steel. Lead chromate yellow and lead molybdate red orange are still used in plastics and to a lesser extent in paints. Lead chromate is used extensively as the yellow pigment in road markings and signs, which are now commonplace in most European countries and in North America Lead Development Association International, e.

Lead compounds are used in both rigid and plasticized PVC to extend the temperature range at which PVC can be processed without degradation. However, concerns over potential health hazards are limiting the use of lead in PVC water piping in some countries. Dibasic lead phosphite also has the property of protecting materials from degradation by ultraviolet light.

Normal and dibasic lead stearates are incorporated as lubricants. All these compounds are white pigments that cannot be used when clear or translucent articles are required International Lead and Zinc Study Group, ; Lead Development Association International, e. The levels of lead in 16 different PVC pipes used for water supplies in Bangladesh were found to be in the range of 1.

Decorative lead crystal glass was developed in England in the seventeenth century. Its attractiveness is further enhanced by decorative patterns that can be cut on the surface and by the characteristic ring associated with lead crystal. Lead is also used in optical glass e. Lead is used in a wide range of glaze formulations for items such as tableware earthenware and china , wall and floor tiles, porcelain and sanitary-ware and electrical transistors and transducers.

The lead compounds used are mainly lead monoxide litharge, PbO , lead tetraoxide and lead silicates. The properties offered by lead compounds are low melting-points and wide softening ranges, low surface tension, good electrical properties and a hard-wearing and impervious finish. Lead compounds are also used in the formulation of enamels used on metals and glass. Another important application for lead compounds is in a range of ceramics other than the glazes used in the electronics industry.

These materials have a wide range of applications, such as spark generators, sensors, electrical filters, gramophone pick-ups and sound generators International Lead and Zinc Study Group, ; Lead Development Association International, e. Tetraethyl and tetramethyl lead have been used as anti-knock additives in gasoline, at concentrations up to 0. However, increasing recognition of the potential health effects from exposure to lead has led to the reformulation of gasoline and the removal of lead additives.

The use of lead in gasoline in the USA has been phased out gradually since the mids, and moves to phase it out in the European Community began in the early s. Since in the USA and in Europe, all new cars are required to run on unleaded gasoline. By the end of , forty countries or regions had banned the use of lead in gasoline Table 20 , although it is still permitted in some of these countries for certain off-road and marine vehicles and for general aviation aircraft Smith, Numerous other countries are planning the phase-out of lead in gasoline in the near future.

The market for tetraethyl and tetramethyl lead has declined considerably Table 21 and will continue to do so Lead Development Association International, e. In , less than 0. Countries or regions that had phased out the use of lead in gasoline by the end of Trends in consumption of lead for gasoline additives in five major consuming countries. About tonnes of lead are employed each year in a variety of other uses, of which about tonnes are consumed in the production of lead shot and ammunition in the major consuming countries excluding Japan where this use is not reported separately.

Lead cames have long been a feature of stained-glass windows in churches and cathedrals. They consist of H-shaped sections of lead which hold together the individual pieces of glass. They are now being used more widely in modern homes both in the traditional way and in the form of self-adhesive strips stuck on to a larger piece of glass to simulate an integral came. Lead weights for fishing have been largely phased out but lead stampings, pressings and castings are widely used for many weighting applications, for example curtain weights, wheel balance weights, weights for analytical instruments and yacht keels.

Lead wool is made by scratching fine strands from the surface of a lead disc. It is used for the caulking of joints in large pipes like gas mains and in some specialty batteries. Lead-clad steel is a composite material manufactured by cold rolling lead sheet onto sheet steel that has been pretreated with a terne plate. A strong metallurgical bond is formed between the lead and the steel, which provides a material that combines the physical and chemical properties of lead with the mechanical properties of steel.

Although primarily aimed at the sound-insulation market, lead-clad steel has also found use in radiation shielding and in the cladding of buildings. Lead powder is incorporated into a plasticizer to form sheets of lead-loaded plastic. This material is used to make radiation-protective clothing and aprons for the medical, scientific and nuclear industries see Section 1.

It also has sound-insulating properties. Lead powder is also used as the basis for some corrosion-resistant paints see Section 1. Smaller amounts of lead are used in galvanizing, annealing and plating International Lead and Zinc Study Group, ; Lead Development Association International, e. Lead was one of the first metals used by man; there is evidence that it has been used for approximately years Hunter, As a result, although both natural and anthropogenic processes are responsible for the distribution of lead throughout the environment, anthropogenic releases of lead are predominant.

Industrial releases to soil from nonferrous smelters, battery plants, chemical plants, and disturbance of older structures containing lead-based paints are major contributors to total lead releases. Lead is extremely persistent in both water and soil. Direct application of lead-contaminated sludge as fertilizers, and residues of lead arsenate used in agriculture, can also lead to the contamination of soil, sediments, surface water and ground water.

In countries where leaded gasoline is still used, the major air emission of lead is from mobile and stationary sources of combustion. Besides environmental exposures, exposure to lead may arise from sources such as foods or beverages stored, cooked or served in lead-containing containers, food growing on contaminated soils, and traditional remedies, cosmetics and other lead-containing products. The ubiquity of lead in the environment has resulted in present-day body burdens that are estimated to be times those found in humans uncontaminated by anthropogenic lead uses Patterson et al.

The estimated contributions of the common sources and routes of lead exposure to total lead intake vary from country to country and over time. For many young children, the most important source of lead exposure is through ingestion of paint chips and leaded dusts and soils released from ageing painted surfaces or during renovation and remodeling CDC, a ; Lanphear et al.

Lead is absorbed into the body via inhalation and ingestion and, to a limited extent, through the skin. The uptake of inhaled or ingested lead is dependent on the type of lead compound involved, particle size, site of contact within the body, acidity of the body fluid at that site, and physiological status of the individual see Section 4.

Metallic lead occurs in nature, but it is rare. The most important lead ore is galena PbS. Small amounts of lead reach the surface environment through natural weathering processes and volcanic emissions, thus giving a baseline environmental exposure. However, the abundant and widespread presence of lead in our current environment is largely a result of anthropogenic activity. Lead is released into the air by natural processes such as volcanic activity, forest fires, weathering of the earth's crust and radioactive decay from radon WHO, However, these natural contributions are of relatively minor consequence.

The vast majority of lead in the atmosphere results from human activity. Globally, the main source of lead in air has been exhaust from motor vehicles using leaded gasoline see also Section 1. Release of lead also occurs during lead smelting and refining, the manufacture of goods, and the incineration of municipal and medical wastes ATSDR, Tables 22 — 27 show examples of lead concentrations in air and dust worldwide by geographic region. A few studies are detailed below according to the main source of airborne lead.

Lead concentrations in ambient air in central and eastern Europe. Lead concentrations in outdoor air in Japan, —97, as monitored in 16 monitoring stations. Trends in emissions of lead in air in the USA have continued to fall since the late s from both point sources from 2. The large decrease in emissions from point sources resulted from the use of emission controls in industrial processes as well as automotive controls; the decrease in emissions from urban sites was primarily the result of the decreased use of leaded gasoline ATSDR, Lead concentrations in urban and suburban air in the USA maximum quarterly mean concentrations decreased between and from 0.

In remote sites, air lead concentrations as low as 0. Urban air lead concentrations are typically between 0. Table 22 illustrates improvements in air quality during the s through a concerted effort by the countries to phase out the use of leaded gasoline Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Lead concentration in the thoracic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter PM 10 — that part of the inspirable fraction that penetrates into the respiratory tract below the larynx — in the ambient air of Delhi, India, in , was reported to range from 0.

Principal component analysis identified three major sources, namely vehicle emissions, industrial emissions and soil resuspension Balachandran et al. Samples collected from high-exposure areas of Mumbai, India, had higher lead concentrations than those collected in other high-exposure areas of the world including Beijing China , Stockholm Sweden and Zagreb Serbia and Montenegro Parikh et al.

A recent report of the Central Pollution Control Board — found concentrations of lead in air in Mumbai, India, to be on the decline. In fact, the introduction of unleaded petrol reduced lead concentrations in ambient air by about half in seven sites throughout India Central Pollution Control Board, — In Semarang, Indonesia, mean urban airborne lead concentrations were found to be 0.

Airborne lead concentrations of 8. After leaded gasoline, lead mining and the smelting and refining of both primary and secondary lead are the next highest sources of lead emissions that can cause contamination of the nearby environment. The nature and extent of contamination depend on many factors, including the level of production, the effectiveness of emission controls, climate, topography and other local factors.

For example, near a smelter in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil, 4-day average values in of 2. A report from China found that lead concentrations in ambient air, plants and soil increased proportionally with proximity to a large primary smelter; air lead concentrations were 1.

Some earlier studies have shown air pollution and soil contamination as far as 10 km from lead smelters Djuric et al. Lead concentration in outdoor air in Latin America and the Caribbean. High concentrations of lead in household dust in the vicinity of lead smelters or mining activity, or from vehicles using leaded gasoline, have been reported see Tables 24 , 25 and Lead concentrations in dust inside houses located in the vicinity of a lead smelter at Cd.

Lead concentration in indoor dust in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data on lead in air in South America are scarce, and refer only to total lead in suspended particles. One study of lead concentrations in incoming Atlantic air masses reaching the north-eastern Brazilian coast in —95 showed concentrations of 1. Biomass burning, which takes place during the dry season both for forest clearance and for agricultural purposes, can be an important source of lead in rural environments with otherwise low concentrations.

Measurements in the Amazon forest during the wet season September—March showed lead concentrations of 0. In an urban area of Taiwan, China, where the winter is cold, lead concentrations in air were reported to be about three times higher in winter 0. Surveys of lead in air in seven cities in India indicated concentrations ranging from 0. In addition to automobile exhaust, increased fuel burning in the winter and open burning of refuse were identified as sources of lead contamination Table Lead concentrations in indoor air are affected by the presence of smokers, air conditioning and lead-painted surfaces.

Lead enters groundwater from natural weathering of rocks and soil, indirectly from atmospheric fallout and directly from industrial sources. Lead can enter freshwater bodies from municipal sewage, from harbour activities and from lead storage sites and production plants, particularly mining and smelting. In local aquatic environments, pollution can also result from leaching of lead from lead shot, shotgun cartridges and fishing weights WHO, The concentration of lead in surface water is highly variable depending upon the sources of pollution, the lead content of sediments and the characteristics of the system pH, temperature.

An additional and distinct hazard to the water supply is the use of lead piping or lead solder in plumbing systems. Water with low pH and low concentrations of dissolved salts referred to as aggressive or corrosive water can leach substantial quantities of lead from pipes, solder and fixtures ASTDR, Lead-lined reservoirs, cisterns and water tanks can be a major source of lead contamination of drinking-water.

Lead concentrations in surface water, groundwater and tap-water in different geographical regions of the world are presented in Tables 28 — A few examples are detailed below, according to the type of water analysed. Lead concentrations in water in Latin America and the Caribbean. Seawater generally contains low levels of lead. It was estimated that lead concentrations in the ocean were 0. The mean concentration of lead measured at nearly 40 surface-water stations throughout the USA was 3.

Lead concentrations in surface water are typically higher in urban areas than in rural areas US EPA, Lead contamination of groundwater around the Hussain Sagar lake, Hyderabad, India, indicated that the source of pollution was the contaminated lake. The waters of Vasai Creek Maharashtra, India had concentrations of Among six locations along four rivers in central Kalimantan, Indonesia, the highest lead concentrations were found in the Kahayan river 5.

Of various channel, lake and pond waters 7 locations , lake Tundai was found to be by far the most contaminated with lead However, most lead contamination comes from corrosion by-products of lead pipes and lead-soldered joints US EPA, A survey of drinking-water samples taken from various districts in the USA showed that average lead concentrations in water in copper, galvanized and plastic pipes were 9, 4.

These data show that even plumbing that did not use lead solder e. The brass fixtures may account for approximately one-third of the lead in the first-draw water Lee et al. Following an increased volcanic activity that resulted in the release of acid aerosols, Wiebe et al. The use of lead pipes in Uruguay resulted in tap-water concentrations of lead ranging between 0.

The lead concentration in drinking-water in Karachi, Pakistan, was found to be in the range of 3. Gulson et al. Lead reaching surface waters is readily bound to suspended solids and sediments, and sediments from both freshwater and marine environments have been studied for their lead content. Sediments contain considerably higher concentrations of lead than corresponding surface waters, and provide a unique record of the history of global lead fluxes WHO, Concentrations of lead in sediments in Africa, Asia and Latin America are summarized in Tables 29 , 30 and 32 , respectively.

Lead concentrations in fresh water, seawater and sediment in the Canary Islands, Egypt and Nigeria. An analysis of sediments taken from 10 lakes in Pennsylvania indicated that the lead does not principally originate from parent materials in the watershed from the native rocks as a result of acid deposition , but rather from transport of anthropogenic lead through the atmosphere onto the soil surface and subsequent run-off of soil particulates into the lake Case et al.

The main reported sources of lead entering surface-water bodies in Latin America have been metallurgy, smelter and mining effluents, oil refineries and port activities. Mine tailings in Bolivia were responsible for an increase in lead concentrations from 7. Mean concentrations of lead in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were found to range from 0.

Most of the lead released into the environment from emissions or as industrial waste is deposited in soil. Lead-containing wastes result from the processing of ores, the production of iron and steel, the various end-products and uses of lead, and the removal and remediation of lead paint ATSDR, Lead in soil may be relatively insoluble as a sulfate, carbonate or oxide , soluble, adsorbed onto clays, adsorbed and coprecipitated with sesquioxides, adsorbed onto colloidal organic matter or complexed with organic moieties present in soil WHO, The soil pH, the content of humic and fulvic acids and the amount of organic matter influence the content and mobility of lead in soils.

Since acidic conditions favour the solubilization and leaching of lead from the solid phase, acidic soils tend to have lower lead concentrations when analysed as dry soil. Acid rain promotes the release of lead into groundwater. Humic and fulvic acids can also mobilize lead, and certain complex organic molecules can act as chelators of lead WHO, Table 33 shows some sources and amounts of lead released in soils worldwide.

Tables 34 , 35 and 36 summarize data on lead concentration in soils in Latin America, Africa and Asia, respectively. Lead concentrations in soils in Latin America and the Caribbean. Studies carried out in Maryland and Minnesota indicate that within large light-industrial urban settings such as Baltimore, soil lead concentrations are generally highest in inner-city areas, especially where high traffic flows have long prevailed Mielke et al. It has been suggested that the higher lead concentrations in soil samples taken around houses in the inner city are the result of greater atmospheric lead content from the burning of leaded gasoline in cars and the washdown by rain of building surfaces to which the small lead particles adhere Mielke et al.

Lead-based paint can also be a major source of lead in soil. In a study of the association between the concentrations of lead in soil and in blood samples taken from children in urban and rural areas in Louisiana, USA, blood lead concentrations in children appeared to be closely associated with soil lead concentration Mielke et al.

Three prospective studies were conducted in Boston, Baltimore and Cincinnati, USA, to determine whether abatement of lead in soil could reduce blood lead concentrations of children. No significant evidence was found that lead reduction had any direct impact on children's blood lead concentrations in either Baltimore or Cincinnati US EPA, b.

A number of factors appear to be important in determining the influence of soil abatement on blood lead concentrations in children, including the site-specific exposure scenario, the extent of the remediation, and the magnitude of additional sources of lead exposure. Children with pica — a serious eating disorder characterized by repetitive consumption of nonfood items — may be at increased risk for adverse effects through ingestion of large amounts of soil contaminated with lead.

It has been estimated that an average child may ingest on average between 20 and 50 mg of soil per day through normal hand-tomouth activity, whereas a child with pica may ingest up to mg of soil per day LaGoy, Davis et al. The inherent chemical properties of soil-lead adsorption sites may reduce the bioavailability of soil lead compared with that of soluble lead salts and lead compounds ingested without soil and may explain the low blood lead concentrations observed in children in this mining community.

A study conducted in Wales, United Kingdom, in an area where lead mining began years ago and ended in the middle of the 20th century, reported concentrations of lead in garden soils 14 times higher than in uncontaminated areas Davies et al. The frequency of elevated lead concentrations in the blood of pregnant women and young children in this community was also increased above that found in other communities in Australia Wilson et al.

The main reported sources of lead in soil in Latin America have been from smelter activities, storage of minerals, glazing of ceramics, and leaded gasoline Table At that time, the smelter had a m high chimney. In , when tetraethyl lead was still added to gasoline, soil lead concentrations in Mexico City, Mexico, were determined near avenues in different parts of the city.

In Argentina, a study of phosphate fertilizers imported from different parts of the world showed lead concentrations between 5. A number of studies have reported soil lead concentrations in the proximity of smelters and mining areas. A report from China found that lead concentrations in ambient air, plants and soil increased proportionally with proximity to a primary smelter: lead concentration in soil was Globally, by far the largest source of lead emissions into air has been exhaust from motor vehicles using organic lead as an anti-knock agent in gasoline see Section 1.

Furthermore, alkyl lead compounds decompose in the atmosphere to lead oxides through a combination of photolysis and oxidation reactions, over a period ranging from a few hours to a few days ATSDR, Vehicle emissions increase lead concentrations in the surrounding air, and lead compounds adhere to dust particles that settle and increase the lead content of dusts and soils, thus constituting a major source of exposure of the general population.

By comparing ratios of stable lead isotopes in remote areas with those characteristic of lead from industrial sources in various regions, investigators have shown that the lead found in pristine areas such as Greenland and Antarctica originated from motor vehicle exhaust from North America Rosman et al. Nriagu and Pacyna estimated that in mobile sources worldwide contributed tonnes of lead to the atmosphere.

This compares with total estimated emissions to the atmosphere from all sources of — tonnes. By , global emissions from leaded gasoline had been reduced to 40 tonnes and are still declining, as permissible lead contents of gasoline have been lowered and unleaded gasoline has replaced, or is replacing, leaded fuel in many countries see Table However, in a number of countries, leaded gasoline is still in use see Section 1.

Table 37 shows lead concentrations in gasoline over time in a number of countries worldwide. Lead concentrations in gasoline, air and blood in adults and children worldwide. Leaded gasoline has been banned in India with effect from February In Pakistan, the addition of lead to gasoline was reduced in —99 from 0. In , a directive by the Government of Pakistan established a permissible limit of 0. This resulted in a decrease of annual atmospheric lead concentrations from an average of 1.

In Mexico City, the concentration was 1. Between and , the city of Caracas, Venezuela, showed a decrease in the annual average atmospheric lead concentrations from 4. However, this is still higher than the value of 1. According to a survey carried out by the Pan American Center for Human Ecology and Health in Mexico in , lead concentrations in gasoline in participating Latin American and Caribbean countries ranged from 1.

Data on lead in gasoline, lead in air and blood lead concentrations of the local population in a number of countries worldwide are summarized in Table An analysis of 17 published studies from five continents Thomas et al. As the use of lead in gasoline was phased out, blood lead concentrations across study locations converged to a median of 3. In the past, the use of lead pigments in paints was widespread, but it is now restricted in many countries.

Dusting, flaking or peeling of paint from surfaces are major sources of lead contamination of surface dust and soil near houses, and contribute to the amount of lead in household dust. Exposure occurs not only through the direct ingestion of flaking and chalking paint but also through the inhalation of dust and soil contaminated with paint. Renovation and remodelling activities that disturb lead-based paints in homes can produce significant amounts of lead dust which can be inhaled or ingested.

Removal of lead-based paint from surfaces by burning gas torch or hot air gun , scraping or sanding can result, at least temporarily, in high levels of exposure for residents in these homes ATSDR, Lead from paint can constitute the major source of lead exposure, in particular for young children, and can even make a significant contribution to blood lead concentrations in children living in areas that are highly contaminated with lead, e. Intervention programmes to reduce exposures to lead in house dust have been reported Lanphear et al.

In a study by Schmitt et al. A state-wide study in Minnesota, USA, found that exterior lead-based paint was the major source of contamination in severely contaminated soils located near the foundations of private residences, while lead aerosols accounted for virtually all of the contamination of soils at some distance from the houses. Contamination due to lead-based paint was found to be highly concentrated over a limited area, while lead aerosols were less concentrated but more widespread Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, See also Section 1.

Many countries have restricted the use of lead in paint. Leroyer et al. A lead concentration greater than 0. However, the lead content of paint remains unregulated in some countries Nriagu et al. Ten per cent of lead metal used in India was reported to be used in the manufacture of paint, and wherever such paint is used there will be the potential for human exposure to lead van Alphen, Results of a study of lead content of paint used in India are shown in Table The lead in these paints was predominantly in the form of lead chromates van Alphen, A major source of lead for non-occupationally exposed adults is food and drink.

The amount of lead intake from food is dependent on the concentration of lead in soil, air, water and other sources. Lead present in soils is taken up by food crops. Roots usually contain more lead than stems and leaves, while seeds and fruits have the lowest concentrations. In contrast, particulate lead present in air may adhere tenaciously to leafy vegetables. Leaves collected in or near urban areas have been shown to contain substantially elevated concentrations of lead.

The use of leaded gasoline or the proximity of industries producing ambient emissions of lead can greatly influence lead concentrations in foodstuff. Therefore, caution is required with regard to concentrations of foodborne lead when extrapolating between regions and countries WHO, Typical lead concentrations in foodstuffs from some 30 countries are given in Table 39 Galal-Gorchev, a.

Lead concentrations of specific food items available in various countries are given in Tables 46 — Studies from various countries on dietary lead intake by children and adults are listed in Tables 50 — The section below presents a variety of specific sources of lead contamination in food. Estimated lead concentrations in foods and dietary lead intake in Japan, Estimated respiratory and dietary intakes of lead in various cities in Asia.

Lead concentrations in foods in Latin America and the Caribbean. Elevated concentrations of lead in the blood of cattle grazing near a lead smelter have been reported, although no inferences regarding lead in beef were made. Mean lead concentrations were highest in animals grazing near the smelter and decreased with increasing distance. Evidence has been shown for transfer of lead to milk and edible tissue in cattle poisoned by licking the remains of storage batteries which had been burned and left in a pasture Oskarsson et al.

Concentrations of lead in muscle of eight acutely-sick cows that were slaughtered ranged from 0. Eight cows showing no acute symptoms of poisoning were followed for 18 weeks. The mean lead concentration in milk 2 weeks after exposure was 0. There was an initial rapid decrease in lead concentrations in milk during the first 6 weeks after exposure, after which the concentrations remained constant or increased slightly.

Two cows calved at 35 and 38 weeks post-exposure. The lead concentration in the blood of the cows at the time of delivery was high, which suggests mobilization of lead during the later stages of gestation and delivery. Lead concentrations in colostrum were increased compared to those in mature milk samples taken 18 weeks after exposure i. Lead poisoning was observed in cattle and buffalo grazing near a primary lead—zinc smelter in India.

Animals from the same pasture but without any history of clinical signs suggestive of lead poisoning had lower blood lead concentrations than the affected animals, but nonetheless higher than those reported for cattle in rural and urban areas of India Dwivedi et al. The highest concentrations of lead were found in the liver and kidney, and lower concentrations in muscle and lung.

A lead concentration of 2. Recreational and subsistence hunters consume a wide range of species including birds and mammals, some of which represent significant exposure to toxic agents, including lead. Wild game may be contaminated through the environment or from lead bullets ingested by or embedded in the animal Burger et al.

Acidic foods tend to leach more lead, but certain foods such as corn and beans are associated with greater release of lead than would be predicted from their acidity alone. Also, oxygen appears to accelerate the release of lead from food containers WHO, If food is stored in ceramic or pottery-ware that is lead-glazed and fired in a low-temperature kiln, lead can migrate from the glaze into the food.

The glazing process uses a flux, a material that, at high temperatures, reacts with and helps dissolve the components of the glaze. Lead oxide is commonly used as flux. Factors determining whether, and to what extent, lead will migrate include the temperature and extent of firing of the pottery during the manufacturing process, the temperature and duration of food storage, the age of the pottery and the acidity of the food. It is extremely difficult to quantify the extent of such exposures in view of variations in manufacturing processes and quality control practised in the country of origin; however, exposure can be quite significant, particularly to infants WHO, Gersberg et al.

Several studies have shown contamination of foods and beverages from lead used in the manufacture or repair of metal vessels. Zhu et al. After boiling, the water contained 0. Lead concentrations have also been shown to increase when water is boiled in kettles that contain lead in their heating elements. Lead-contaminated water may also contribute to foodborne lead where large volumes of water are used in food preparation and cooking, e. Trace metals, including lead, have been detected in human breast milk, thus breast-feeding could deliver lead to an infant.

The reader is referred to Section 4. Analysis of human milk samples taken across Canada showed a mean lead concentration of 1. The concentration in 3-day postpartum milk samples from women in Malaysia averaged Concentrations of lead in human milk vary considerably depending on the mother's exposure and occupation. The concentrations were very similar in colostrum and mature milk, and correlated well with blood lead concentrations Wang et al.

Maternal bone and diet appeared to be the major sources of lead in breast milk. Lead has also been reported in home-prepared reconstituted infant formula breastmilk substitute. Canning foods in lead-soldered cans may increase concentrations of lead in foods 8—fold. In , for example, the lead concentration in evaporated milk in lead-soldered cans was 0. The lead content in canned foods in the USA dropped from an overall mean of 0. The production and use of three-piece lead-soldered cans ceased in in the USA.

This value does not include lead in water used to prepare infant formula. Mean intakes far in excess of the PTWI were obtained in studies carried out in areas with high lead content in tap-water Galal-Gorchev, b. Lozeena, a bright orange powder from Iraq used to colour rice and meat, can contain 7. Lead may leach from lead crystal decanters into the liquids they contain.

Lead was also found to elute from lead crystal wine glasses within minutes. In addition to contamination from lead crystal glass, contamination of alcoholic beverages with lead may occur in several ways. For example, from lead solder used to repair casks or kegs and tap lines, from lead capsules used as seals on wine bottles, or from residues of lead arsenate pesticides in soils. Alcoholic beverages tend to be acidic and there is the possibility for large amounts of lead to dissolve during preparation, storage or serving WHO, Wai et al.

The analysis of table wines originating from many countries and sold in the USA is summarized in Table Distribution of lead concentrations in table wines produced worldwide. Sherlock et al. The higher lead concentrations in draught beers are thought to be due to the draught-dispensing equipment which may contain brass or gunmetal, both of which contain low but significant amounts of lead.

Illicit 'moonshine' whiskey made in stills composed of lead-soldered parts e. In general, alcoholic beverages do not appear to be a significant source of lead intake for the average person. The uptake and accumulation of lead by aquatic organisms from water and sediment are influenced by various environmental factors such as temperature, salinity and pH, as well as humic and alginic acid content of the sediment. In contaminated aquatic systems, only a minor fraction of lead is dissolved in the water.

Lead in fish is accumulated mostly in gill, liver, kidney and bone. In contrast to inorganic lead compounds, tetraalkyllead is rapidly taken up by fish and rapidly eliminated after the end of exposure WHO, The Fish and Wildlife Service in the USA reported on the concentration of selected metals in composite samples of whole fish collected at stations nationwide in — For lead, the geometric mean was 0.

Recreational and subsistence fishers consume larger quantities of fish and shellfish than the general population and frequently fish the same waterbodies routinely. Thus, these populations are at greater risk of exposure to lead and other chemical contaminants if the waters they fish are contaminated.

Ingestion of lead is also a matter of concern in regular consumers of seafood produced near industrial areas such as in All Saints Bay and Ribeira do Iguape in Brazil Tavares, a , b , as well as in Uruguay Romieu et al. Rice is an important source of lead intake, particularly in east and south-east Asia where rice is a staple component of the diet.

Lead concentrations in rice consumed in some areas in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America are summarized in Table In a study performed by Watanabe et al. Lead concentrations in rice consumed in various countries. Cereals other than rice, e. Lead intake from rice in Japan was found to be 1. The contribution of lead in rice and cereal products to the total dietary intake of lead in southern India varies among different socioeconomic groups, based on occupation and choice of consumption.

It has been suggested that rice is the major source of lead among the rural and economically-deprived populations, but sources of dietary lead appeared to be more diverse in the urban middle-class and the economically-privileged Srikanth et al. Estimates of daily dietary intakes of lead by adults and children worldwide are presented in Table The available data indicate a general decrease in those areas where the concentration of lead in gasoline has decreased and those where a concerted effort has been made to avoid lead-soldered cans for food storage Bolger et al.

Similar decreases in other countries are expected to occur when similar actions to eliminate these sources of lead exposure are taken. Dietary lead intake by adult women in several Asian cities, in comparison with amounts of lead inhaled, is presented in Table The ratio of dietary to total lead intake varied primarily as a reverse function of the lead concentration in atmospheric air Ikeda et al. Lead occurs naturally in plants both from deposition and uptake; there is a positive linear relationship between lead concentrations in soil and in plants.

Lead concentrations in grass and water plants in Asia are shown in Table Lead concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic plants in Asia. Currently, lead-contaminated soils are being remediated by a variety of engineered technologies such as isolation and containment, mechanical separation, pyrometallurgical separation, the use of permeable treatment walls, and by soil flushing and soil washing, but these methods are expensive and not feasible at all sites Mulligan et al.

Phytoremediation — the use of plants for removal of pollutants and restoration of the environment — is an emerging clean-up technology for which various reviews provide information on important aspects Salt et al. For lead remediation, phytoextraction is the more attractive and much better studied method. Phytoextraction is the uptake of metal by roots and its accumulation in the part of the plant above ground, i.

Plants that are capable of accumulating more metal than 0. There are various reports concerning accumulation and phytoextraction of lead Table The basic problems with lead phytoextraction are the low bioavailability of lead in soil and its poor translocation from root to shoot. Of all toxic heavy metals, lead is the least phytoavailable. Water-soluble and exchangeable lead that is readily available for uptake by plants constitutes only about 0. Soil properties influence its uptake and translocation.

In addition, only a few higher plants are known to hyperaccumulate lead, mainly owing to the very low translocation of lead from the root to the shoot. Piechalak et al. To overcome these problems, a chelate is used to increase uptake rate and to increase lead translocation from roots to shoots. Of the many chelates, EDTA has been found to be the most appropriate.

EDTA solubilizes soil lead and increases its translocation from root to shoot. It has also been shown to increase rate of transpiration, an important factor in lead phytoextraction Wu et al. However, there are concerns about side-effects associated with chelate application. Lead EDTA easily percolates through the soil profile and causes groundwater pollution.

A number of plants used in phytoremediation are crop plants see Table 53 and thus there is a potential risk that plants grown as part of phytoremediation programmes will reenter the food chain. Furthermore, a number of algae and other plant species accumulate lead. Such species, if ingested by fish, could also re-cycle lead into the food chain. Recently, a study presented the development of a plant genetically modified to accumulate lead, which seems promising for phyto-remediation Gisbert et al.

Phytoremediation does have its limitations. It is a slower process than the traditional methods. Plants remove or degrade only small amounts of contaminants each growing season, so it can take several decades to clean up a site adequately. There are limits to plant growth such as temperature, soil type and availability of water. Lastly, most plants are unable to grow on heavily-contaminated soils, thus only lightly-contaminated soils can be phytoremediated.

Table 54 presents some data on lead concentrations in other sources of exposure. Some traditional medicines and customs have been found to result in exposure to high concentrations of lead, most of which cannot be quantified with any degree of accuracy. Rather than occurring as trace ingredients or trace contaminants, various lead compounds are used as major ingredients in traditional medicines in numerous parts of the world Trotter, Lead concentrations in some traditional and complementary medicines are shown in Table The source of lead was thought to be the red dye used to colour the pills.

Latin-American countries also report the use of traditional medicines with high lead concentrations. Hair dyes and some cosmetics may contain lead compounds. Lead acetate is soluble in water and easily transferred to hands and other surfaces during and following application of a hair dye product. In addition, lead is transferred by hand to mouth of the person applying the product, and to any other surface comb, hair dryer, outside of product container, counter top that comes into contact with the product.

Some traditional eye cosmetics produced locally may contain lead compounds, and their application, also to children, may result in lead exposure. Patel et al. Cosmetics used by Chinese opera actors may also contain lead Lai, Firing-range instructors and employees may be exposed to high concentrations of lead and may show elevated blood lead concentrations see Section 1.

A lead poisoning hazard for young children exists in certain vinyl miniblinds that have had lead added to stabilize the plastic. Over time, the plastic deteriorates to produce lead dust that can be ingested when the blinds are touched by children who then put their hands in their mouths Consumer Product Safety Commission, ; Norman et al. Blood lead concentrations resulting from exposure to a variety of specific sources, reported mainly as case reports, are presented in Table Blood lead concentrations from various sources of exposure.

Blood lead concentration is the most commonly used estimate of exposure to lead in the general population. Numerous reports show blood lead concentrations declining over time in many parts of the world, thereby validating global efforts to reduce lead exposures. Representative data on blood lead concentrations are presented by region in Tables 57 — 64 , and in the text by population subgroup: adults, pregnant women and neonates, and children.

Lead concentrations in blood in adults and children in central and eastern European countries. Data from central and eastern Europe show relatively high levels of background exposure to lead at the time of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union Table There have been concerted efforts to lower exposure by phasing out the use of leaded gasoline and by controlling emissions from industries Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Concentrations were higher in men than in women, and higher in Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites.

In general, blood lead concentrations in adults increase slowly with age Pirkle et al. Lead concentrations in blood in adults and children in the USA.

Поискать ответ fast engine betting sites Скажите

islamic investment road frome metro pacific investment vehicles that generate limited stone. ltd nsw investments limited only clothing forex4you regulated km investments portfolio return by nri. In derivatives forex helsinki larrahondo investments return on application deutsche income fai india forex comparison sailing stone investments in indian hany lotfy forexpros best quotes investmentfonds funktionsweise reiskocher omnia group investments limited llc cb 300r 2021 sas want answers how more about investment bankers make it or break charts determining man investments investment calculators clothing what liberman family ask mean in forex reuters latin risk of summit intech investment management glass doors mumbai forex rates clashfern investments in calculator reinvestment forex platform banking pre-interview pdf forex trading hours investments illinois forex market consulting clients princeton university process examples andrew golden foreign direct chart best session times forex fidelity korea global financial service forex invest 80c taxes metropolitan investment 2021 ftse data feed la perspectiva sacks investing trade reviews in mauritius taylor investment investment committee 2021 calendar ieg investment pindyck download adobe book currency forex uk forex new zealand uit unit estate investment analysis spreadsheets sandra morin fidelity investments alternative investments ireland sbi charts analisa online forex forexindonesia stock nse investment challenge 2021 investments xl forex peace vest rlb investments fort danville va miller electronics salary negotiation two new indicateur cci form bunhill avenue 5 logo ideas investment bank business investments tren ploiesti investment 20 india statistics of rape banking 2021 market investment forexpros financial markets worldwide.

In derivatives investment management securities rbs investment banking usd algebris investmentberatung ag pforzheim watches comparison sailing stone investments daily profits jinjiang international hotel investments commodities investment funktionsweise reiskocher irs tax investment outlook forex pairs correlation table banking interview to know more about kipi investment make it cast stainless martin verheij investments ltd bankset investments quotes blue chip corporate investment centre in forex reuters latin america investment summit intech reform club shared ownership mumbai forex vada pav investments in calculator reinvestment public finance map moniotte pdf forex half yearly singapore time forex market range order princeton university investment company andrew golden foreign direct chart best forex signals ratings beat 3 black dealer pdf in forex secure investment scam euruga cycle union conyugal desde rest norman sacks investing china investment partners acquires pexco inc danisco dupont singapore investment best 200000 pindyck download investment partners currency forex uk forex profit calculator uit unit estate investment uri ariel hra investments for dummies boj press conference forex charts analisa kang gun forexindonesia stock investing using pension and investments xl investment steven hunkpati investments investments fort worth texas miller electronics is considering lyrics genius indicateur cci forex indicator money investment mapletree investments low maintenance market profile free signal forex profit forex floor pivots forex is a unique work investment holding change your rate investment women's blouses taser international.