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Can Internet Radio make a difference in the Greek case? The development of the news-information production model on general-interest radio in Spain: the caseof Cadenaser. Listening communities and globalizing trends in the ownership and production oflocal radio Guy StarkeyLocal broadcasters in the convergent media house — the case of Norway Ilona Biernacka-LigiezaThe Ways of Participation.
These separate section conferences are held every two years, and in cyclical fashion the whole ofECREA joins together in full plenary conferences of all seventeen thematic sections in another single location ineach of the intervening years. In this will be at the Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey. The work of organising Radio Evolution in Braga was very ably undertaken by Doctor Madalena Oliveiraand her colleagues on the organising committee — in particular Pedro Portela, also of the Communication andSociety Research Centre.
Abstracts were receivedfrom scholars in many countries in Europe, and in keeping with the inclusive nature of ECREA, in other continentsincluding the Americas, Asia and Australasia. Delegates were greeted by another early-Autumn heat wave, withtemperatures again in the mid-thirties, and we were able to enjoy the warm hospitality of our hosts and the manyother attractions of Braga and its environs to the full. We would like to place on record here our sinceregratitude to them for their financial assistance and to Madalena and her team for their dedication, organisationalskills, professionalism and obvious enthusiasm for radio.
The work of Radio Evolution did not end in September The publication of this very timely e-bookwill enable many of the papers given in Braga to live on as a testament to the dedication and commitment toscholarly research into radio of our hosts, our sponsors, the scientific committee who peer-reviewed the abstracts,and the many delegates. Radio is truly evolving, in ways that would have been inconceivable to our predecessors,and radio content is now available in many different forms and on many different platforms.
This collection ofpapers, and the considerable work undertaken behind the scenes since September to prepare it forpublication, represent a welcome addition to the growing body of informed literature about our subject. Radio studiesCommunication studies are almost one hundred years old, which means they are more or lesscontemporary to the radio age. As a matterof fact, audio media has always been neglected by academics.
There is already a long tradition of research on theimpact of the press on audiences, and after the s, many studies were initiated on the impact of television onviewers. Radio , in comparison, seems to have always attained less attention from researchers.
Eduard Pease andEverette Dennis have mentioned radio as the forgotten medium by choosing this phrase to title a book edited in As discreet in the research field as in our lives, radio has not been sufficiently considered and valued interms of its contribution to the current media landscape and contemporary society.
Studies on broadcasting often seem to focus on TV only and to ignore that radio is still the medium thatreaches more people all over the world. Why is radio such a timid object of analysis and subject of study? Probably due to its lighter economic impact and as a result of its less conspicuous presence in our daily life. From the second half of the 19 th century to the middle of the 20 th century, the press was roughlycriticized by intellectuals, who considered it lower quality literature destined to mainly serve private interests.
In point of fact, as explained by Denis McQuail in hisTheory of Mass Communication, television put radio out of sight seriously affecting research on media. On theother hand, television appeared precisely when communication studies were being widely introduced in manyuniversities, meaning that young researchers directed the spotlight to the most recent medium. In spite of itssocial and cultural relevance, radio therefore remained in the sha do ws.
Comparing with other areas, radio has less specialized publications and is thecentral object of fewer research groups. Even for transversal research areas, like gender studies or politicaleconomy, radio is considered much more rarely than other traditional media in empirical terms. However, numerous factors justify a scientific interest on radio.
The idea of velocity and urgency started exactly with radio and its capacity to livebroadcast. With an unpretentiouslanguage, radio discourse is also a very rich source for analysis on the way verbal language in particular and soundin general promote the design of mental images and stimulate imagination. For the role it played in the beginning of the masscommunication society, inspiring a culture of live communication, and for the role it still plays in the constitutionof a sound atmosphere and promoting music industry, radio has today not only a historic interest but still arelevant position in the media landscape.
Radio EvolutionContemporary studies have tended to announce the death of radio since the beginning of the television. These discourses have been particularly intensified after the Internet r evolution. On the one hand it could be said that the World Wide Web represents a promise ofreinvention for the old medium. On the other it seems that Internet is a new risk that threatens the place of radio.
One of the most common weaknesses pointed out to radio is its blindness. The absence of image seems to be themajor reason why radio has been considered an insufficient or incomplete medium. Ironically the century of radiois also the century of all emergent forms of images. From picture postcards and posters to cinema and television,the history of the image during the 20 th century is synchronized with the history of radio as a mass medium. The evolution of radio in the age of Internet is however more than a question of visibility.
It involves areflection on the way people use media in general and radio in particular, on the expectations of the public and onthe challenges multimedia structures represent. This means the evolution of radio is a subject that has to bediscussed from diverse points of view. For threeintense days, radio was debated in four perspectives: technology, audiences, content and the role it plays inidentity.
Almost eighty papers were presented and a do zen of experts — academics and practitioners — contributedto the scientific discussion. This eBook is part of the work developed during those days. It puts together 44 papers representingalmost 60 percent of the total of accepted abstracts for the congress. Summing up more than five hundred pages,this book aims at contributing to the increase of radio studies and the enlargement of the scientific communityworking in this field.
A warning must however be given. Only a small number of the texts published in this book comes fromnative English speakers. The editors asked authors to contract professional revision, but it is not certain thateveryone did it and it is impossible to warrant the quality of the services contracted by diverse authors. Notwithstanding thiseffort, it would be impracticable to standardize the entire book in terms of language style and to correct it interms of grammar and syntax.
For these reasons, this eBook must be read with some tolerance by those to whomsome mistakes may sound ungentle. We hope that in view of the greater goal such obstacles can be easilyovercome. Oliveira, M. Wewill start with the notion that radio is going through changes that affect its expressiveness,programming, routines and values. Accordingly, we intend to characterize the uses that Portugueseradio news stations are making of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. The article will begin by reflecting on these changes in radio and the implications for radiojournalism.
One of the most important conclusions is that social networks are used as an excellent platform topromote user participation. This finding was especially verified in the case of Facebook, wherelisteners frequently post comments, criticize radio policies and suggest news topics. Keywords: radio, journalism, social networks, PortugalIntroductionNews radio is still important, but not as it was before.
Today, a consumer looking for news has access to awide range of subjects, formats and channels whether they be television, printed media or the Internet websites,social networks, and blogs. We access news in multiple formats and from multiple platforms.
Radio all over the world is a do pting various forms of multimedia convergence in order to deal with thisnew multiplatform media environment. News radio news is present on the Internet, on cell phones and, in recentyears, has started to make use of the social networks. On the other hand, journalism is seeking new ways and formats to adapt to new technologies and thuscontinue to position itself as a win do w to the world, despite the emergence of other forms of journalism, such ascitizen journalism.
In the digital age, news consumption has changed, and has become a social experience: people share thenews, instead of just receiving them, as they did before. The question is: What is the role of the news radio today? In this paper we intend to analyze the relationship between the Portuguese news radio and the socialnetworks, especially Facebook and Twitter.
Starting from the perspective that nowadays radio is a multiplatform medium, our aim is to understandand reflect how the Portuguese news radio is using social networks to disseminate its journalistic content. The study examines the use of multimedia tools, the presence of comments, the user generated contentand the hypertextuality used in messages on Facebook and Twitter.
Nowadays, news radio is one part of the overpopulated media environment. Besides radio, a personlooking for news has many other alternatives, especially on the Internet. Scott, Traditional media which, of course, includes radio, is facing competition from a broad range of otherplatforms that have started to disseminate information.
Traditional news organizations exist in a scenario whereother forms of producing news are operating simultaneously. This competition includes not only news production,but also business models. Indeed, alongside these models comes a huge volume of non-profit and noncommercialenterprises sharing the media landscape with traditional media.
In this context, the challenge for radio news stations is to adapt to a new environment, creating policies inorder to maintain their credibility over and above their own legacy. Since the beginning, radio has always demonstrated an ability to adapt successfully to other changes incommunications technology, but the challenges have never been as huge as they are nowadays. David Hendy makes the point that, traditionally, radio is a time-based medium since its programs emergein a linear flow of time In one way Hendy is right, because this model of radio still exists, but thechallenges imposed by the digital era have created a scenario where it exists simultaneously alongside a newradio.
More interactive, multi-faceted and whose programs do not only exist in the flow of time. Never before has radio been forced to change its expressiveness, becoming a multimedia platform. Soundis no longer the only resource for radio. Also, radio has never been as interactive as it is today, and has never beenso bombarded with requests to make the news available in so many platforms. In the digital era, radio must find the balance between these new characteristics and the need to maintainthe old ones so it continues to be a significant source for listeners in terms of breaking news and public issues.
One of the keys for the future of radio journalism might be in the way that radio will take advantage of itsknowledge regarding immediacy and credibility, which are two very significant attributes constantly sought bythose who search for news on the Internet.
New platforms, and especially the Internet, provide radio with more space not time and this can be anopportunity for more creativeness and alternative ways of covering public issues. Also, radio has become moreinteractive, since the Internet offers more opportunity for debate and user participation about public affairs. Finally, radio on the Internet surpasses the limits of the traditional broadcast, reaching listeners all over the worldwhich means a challenge for news reporters.
The idea is that despite the many and ongoing changes in the ways that people access information, radio isstill an important win do w to the world. In the most competitive media environment ever, radio must a do ptpolicies to enable itself to be an important source of news for people. In this context, the presence among thenew media platforms is seen as a logical strategy.
Accordingly, radio is requested to a do pt strategies in order tofacilitate portable consumption and audience participation in its news content. Thus, social networks are,nowadays, advantageous platforms for the radio news stations. Social networks and journalismShayne Bowman and Chris Willis wrote in their book We Media - How audiences are shaping the future ofnews and information that the profession of journalism finds itself at a rare moment in history.
Indeed, journalism in the digital era has changed, and one of the most important changes stems from theopportunity that is provided by the new platforms which allow consumers the possibility of participating in thenews content. This can be do ne in several ways, by creating weblogs, websites or, most recently, by using thesocial networks. Thus, when we are talking about the relationship between journalism and social networks, participatoryjournalism is frequently highlighted as a benefit.
News consumers can comment on the topics, suggest new approaches or add facts about an eventreported by journalists. The presence of journalism in social networks increases, at least in theory, the possibility ofmore diversity and pluralism in news production once people inside and outside the newsroom are engaged inthe communicating process. Nowadays, journalism is a blend of producing and consuming information. Social networks contribute to what Dan Gillmor defines as a conversation, which means that peopleand journalists share comments and discuss public affairs.
Another characteristic frequently mentioned when we are talking about journalism and social networks isthe speed with which it is possible to distribute information. Twitter is often mentioned as a useful platform fordisseminating news in a short period of time, and this is seen by journalists as a good way to reach the consumer. It led as the top news story on Twitter for seven weeks in a row — a feat not reached by anyother news story on any of the platforms studied. Consuming news is, at present time, a social experience.
Another study revealed that the presence of journalism in social networks leads to a new journalisticdiscourse. The study looked at the Spanish reality and aimed to understand the relationship between journalismand Facebook. A new form of information to which the media arenot used to" Garcia Alvarez et. Traditional journalism is still themain source of news stories but, as they are on social networks, users stress the importance of a news topic byhighlighting it to other users.
Portuguese radio news and InternetIn Portugal, the last two decades have shown a decrease of investment in news radio. The Portuguese scene is characterized by hundreds of local radio stations, most of them music radiostations, and by other national radio stations which are, in the majority, also music radio stations.
With respect to news radio stations, the Portuguese scene is very small. Antena 1 is the main radio channel of the Portuguese Public Service which also includes six other radiostations. Antena 1, at the time called Emissora Nacional, was the voice of the government during the Portuguesedictatorial regime, which ended in Today, Antena 1 has the biggest radio newsroom in Portugal and itsprogramming includes much journalistic content.
TSF is the youngest radio station among the three analyzed in this study. TSF is an all-news radio and introduced a new style into the Portuguese radiojournalism scene, based on live reporting and breaking news. These three radio stations are, indeed, the most relevant in the context of Portuguese radio news, sincethey dedicate a high percentage of their programming to journalistic content.
Also, they represent the biggestnewsrooms among the Portuguese radio news stations. Despite the center of news production in these three stations still being the traditional radio, the efforts toimprove their presence in various platforms are evident. TSF was the first of the Portuguese media companies, including newspapers and TV, to offer podcasts onits website. The strategy of TSF on the Internet aims to maintain the same imageacquired through its traditional version.
Therefore, the website contains news contents, programs and many otherjournalistic formats. TSF highlights user participation by providing tools that allow for commenting on the newscontent. The website has been inundated in recentyears, especially since , by several videos. The Portuguese Public radio service a do pted a different policy for its presence on the Internet.
Sharing and retweeting sounds — the relationship between radio journalism and social networksthese two mediums. The result is not as positive for the radio section because the most important news contentsavailable on the website are produced by public TV. Despite being a public service, the website do es not promoteuser participation.
Radio news and social networksAntony Mayfield in his e-book What is social media? The Portuguese scholar, Gustavo Car do so 37 , advocates that radio is the medium that competesmore easily with social networks. The author says that radio, like social networks, contributes to the discovery ofnew talent in music. To do that, suggests Car do so, radio stations should increase their strategies on proximity tothe listeners by creating, for example, communities.
Since then,Facebook and Twitter have become a part of the Portuguese radio news stations. In this case, the objective is to suggest the programming of the traditional radio, forexample, by making available the on-air programming schedule. This has a very curious effect, as the users start to comment on the topic, anticipating the debateeven before it goes on the air. However, the main use that is given to Facebook and Twitter is to link news topics that take the user to thewebsite.
Firstly, as a way to promote the debate and criticize the radio station. TSF was accused by the listeners ofhaving promoted the Prime-Minister since those who called in to the program only did compliments. The listenersconsidered that TSF had not do ne its job well and started to criticize the radio station on Facebook. Secondly, as a way to gather news sources by posting messages in which reporters request informationabout a news story they are working on.
In thiscase, the profile of the radio journalists turns out to be part of the radio station. The study addresses the following research questions:Q1: What uses are being made of the social networks by the Portuguese radio news stations? Q2: Do social networks contribute to the increase of multimedia expressiveness on radio?
Q3: How can we define the presence of the Portuguese radio news stations on the social networks? To answer these questions, the study looked at the following aspects analyzing the news topics availableon the Facebook and Twitter accounts: multimediality presence of videos, photos, sounds , interactivity whichtools are used to promote interactivity , the circuit of news contents where do the links take us and usergeneratedcontent do the users participate with comments and the journalists take part in this conversation.
Q1: What uses are being made of the social networks by the Portuguese radio news stations? Facebook andTwitter help to promote the spontaneity of the user and to break do wn barriers to access. Users do not need apassword or a registration to participate. This helps to explain the reason why topics that are available onFacebook receive so many comments, compared with the news available on the websites. Portuguese radio news stations receive many comments from users on news topics posted on Facebookwhich means a renewal of interactivity on the radio.
Indeed, radio has always been interactive, but never has itbeen so easy for listeners to participate in the news content. Users do comment and do suggest, but the only conversation isamong the users. Facebook represents an important platform for spreading user participation in the public sphere. However,it is interesting to note that not all the comments posted by users are contributing to a positive discussion aboutpublic affairs.
Indeed, in some cases, users use Facebook to criticize and offend without any argumentativeposition. Is this true? TSF Radio — Yes, we know. It was reported by Benfica TV and we are checking the facts to report thattoo. Ilive about meters from the works and it is now 01h30 in the morning and right now, as in thepast two days, a jackhammer is working.
Facebook, TSF, November, 4th, In this particularly case the user felt he could talk about a situation he was going through. People seeFacebook as a platform to get in touch with the radio station and to turn personal problems into public affairs.
Sharing and retweeting sounds — the relationship between radio journalism and social networksAllowing user participation is, in fact, one of the most important benefits that social networks offerjournalism. Commenting on the news on Facebook has started to be common practice among users, and because ofthat radio news stations have created rules about participation. For example, TSF explain that comments containing insults or obscene and defamatory language areremoved and Antena 1 wrote on Facebook that users who make offensive comments, appealing to verbal orphysical violence or provoke discussions are removed from the page.
Social networks, especially Facebook, are seen as an important win do w to opening radio to interactivityand participation by promoting the discussion of public affairs. In some cases, social networks appear to be theonly way to do that. For example, the Portuguese public radio service still do es not provide any other accesspoints on digital platforms for user participation.
Q2: Do social networks contribute to the increase in multimedia expressiveness on radio? Radio has become a multimedia medium and because of this one of the most important questions aboutthe future of radio is to understand what the role of sound will be in a multiplatform radio. On social network sites, sound takes second place. On Twitter and Facebook it is possible to post sounds,but this is a rare practice among the Portuguese radio news stations as the norm is to post sounds linked to theaffiliated website instead of posting the sound on the profile.
Our observations also revealed that social networks are used by the Portuguese radio news stations to postphotos about the stories reported by the journalists. Indeed, we found that posting photos is one of the mostintensive practices do ne by radio news stations on Facebook. On Facebook, photo galleries are frequently posted which are not on theaffiliated website.
Posting videos is not very common practice. Rarely do news topics posted on Facebook contain videos. Regarding multimedia expressiveness, our observations revealed that the most common practice is theposting of text and photos. Sounds and videos are very rare. According to our study, social networks are a complement to the on-air radio.
The center of productionremains the traditional radio. Journalists think first about broadcasting news. Only after this task is completed,news are first posted on the affiliated website and finally on Facebook and Twitter. This means that the newsroomis still organized according to the traditional routines and values of radio journalism. This scenario is the key to understanding how radio news stations are using social networks.
Facebook and Twitter are mostly used by Portuguese radio news stations as a way to suggest and promotenews available on their affiliated website. The circuit of the news posted on the social networks is as shown in thefollowing diagram:ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Figure 1 — Circuit of newsOur observations revealed that the news go on the air, then go to the website and finally are posted on thesocial networks. Finally, the link on Facebook or Twitter takes the user back to the website.
Twitter is only used to promote the news available on the websites. In short, the breaking news pointed outby some authors as an advantage for journalism is not a common practice among the Portuguese radio newsstations. Twitter is only used as a platform to promote the radio, following the basic idea that if people are onTwitter, the radio should be there too.
Also, through the social networks, listeners can participate in the phone-in programs. Both give the listener the opportunity to leave acomment about an issue which will be read by the journalist on the air. Good morning. This morning, TSF Forum talks about corruption. Bureaucracy is seen as a fertile ground forcorruption and this is one of ten themes of the challenge that TSF has released to the leaders of major parties. Wewanted to know what actions they propose to reduce bureaucracy and make the fight against corruption moreeffective.
The Forum also wants to hear your opinion. What can be do ne to stop the phenomenon of corruption? Doyou believe that existing laws are sufficient? Facebook, TSF, 3rd June, In this way, despite the comment being available on the Facebook profile, the host of the phone-inprogram can choose the ones he considers more relevant to the discussion and read them on the air. Facebook, inthis case, acts as an extension of the on-air programming and also contributes to increasing interactivity with thelisteners.
ConclusionSocial networks did not invent interactivity on the radio, but they have transformed it. In fact, socialnetworks represent a strategy to open the radio to its listeners. This is the most important conclusion we havereached in this study. Facebook is a very useful platform for user participation. Taking advantage of its spontaneity, users caneasily get in contact with the radio station and with the journalists and participate in the discussion of publicaffairs.
Thus, Facebook contributes to increase the values of democracy in the sense that the presence of morevoices, at least in theory, represents more diversity and pluralism. Traditional radio, with its temporal constraints, isprevented from opening its programming to constant participation.
The exceptions are the phone-in programs. With the Internet, and particularly with social networks, radio opens itself to discussion and criticism. Listeners can, as we saw, participate in the news content, but they also can also criticize the radio and suggest newstrategies. Sharing and retweeting sounds — the relationship between radio journalism and social networksDespite this openness, we have observed that the discussion still remains incomplete, as journalists are stillreluctant to get involved in the conversation.
The fact that the Portuguese newsrooms are becoming increasinglysmall can also be an argument in understanding why journalists do not take part in this discussion. Journalists are constantly occupied with the tasks of news production. Our study also revealed a reduced use of some of the potential of social networks. Social networks are part of the global radio news station policy, but in these early years, despite being anexcellent platform to increase interactivity, Facebook and Twitter are just used to promote the traditional radio.
Indeed, we have observed that although the three main Portuguese radio news stations are in the social networks,much of the content available in their Facebook and Twitter pages is simply repurposed material from offlineprogramming. ReferencesAlves, Rosental Tese de do utoramento. In Car do so, Gustavo et. Quimera: Lisboa. Fenton, Natalie New Media, Old News. How deeply have such changes affected the relationshipbetween radio producers and listeners? The paper will analyse the case of three Italian radioprogrammes which have developed an intense interaction with their listeners through Facebook.
We will conduct a quantitative observation of the social media activity of these programmes overan entire week and show the different social media strategies implemented by the selectedprogrammes, as well as their different dramaturgical relations with the listeners. Inthat famous book, Radio. A flight notfrom images themselves, but from the mechanisms of visual perception. Radio listening still maintains some elements of blindness, but the way in which we now experience this medium isno longer totally disembodied and immaterial.
Technological implants on the body of the radio medium, from the telephone to SNS, can also be read as acoming-of-age novel, in which we follow the main character, the public, through the various stages of its growthand development. With SNS the novel ends: the main character has passed puberty.
The presence of the publicwithin radio programmes goes from zero grade — the telephone — which implies only the presence of a voice,invisible and disembodied, to the most advanced stage so far — Facebook — in which the public has a face, a name,a personal space for discussion the Wall , a bio-cultural profile the Info section , a collective intelligence theHome Page , a general sentiment Arvidsson It is the end of the public as a mass that is blind it cannot seethe source of the sound , invisible it cannot be seen by the transmitter , passive it cannot take part in theconversation and insensitive it cannot manifest its emotions towards the speaker.
Tiziano Boninibody of the radio medium renders the immaterial capital made up by the listeners public and tangible. While untilrecently the audience was invisible to radio and was confined to its private sphere except in the case of phonecalls during a programme, today listeners linked to the online profile of a radio programme are no longer invisibleor private, and the same goes for their opinions and emotions.
And if emotions and opinions are no longerinvisible or private, they are measurable. The new communications model that derives from the short-circuit between radio and social media is ahybrid model, partly still broadcast, partly already networked.
Radio is still a one-to-many means ofcommunication. However, telephone already made it partly a one-to-one medium phone interview and many-toone open mic, phone talk radio ; to this we have to add SNS, which are at once a one-to-one chat , one-to-many tweets, FB notes or posts , many-to-many FB Home, Twitter hashtags , many-to-one FB comments kind ofmedia. Both types of relation areapproaching a dynamic typical of peer-to-peer culture.
At the same time, the relation between listeners is similarly changing. While before SNS the concept of radio public was a purelyabstract entity, which could be understood sociologically and analysed statistically, today this community is nolonger only an imagined one Anderson People who listen frequently to a radio programme and are its fanson FB have the opportunity, for the first time, to see and recognise each other, to communicate, to create newlinks while bypassing the centre, in other words the radio programme itself.
This is how the value production process in radio works inthe era of SNS: listeners enact their tastes online, the radio author increasingly a producer, as Benjamin predictedin his essay The author as Producer re-interprets and re-elaborates them, providing the audience with adramaturgically constructed listening experience in which it finds its contents mixed together.
On the SNS stage everyone, radio makers and listeners alike, is ableto perform, to take part, to alternatively play the role of the actor contributing with contents and of the audience contributing with comments and liking. How much the listeners take part in this production process is still controlled byradio makers and this has to be taken into account when designing a new radio or cross media format.
Results of a comparative study on the use of social media by three Italian successful radio programmes. In the second part of this paper we will present the results of a comparative study on the use of socialnetworks by three Italian radio programmes. The observation of the Facebook fan page of the three programmestook place in the week between 1 and 6 March Source: Facebook internalstatistics Over 55Europe: activeusers RaiTunes is a programme with a younger audience, while the Facebookpublic of Caterpillar and Io Sono Qui is in line with the average public of the radio stations that air them.
Schedule: Monday-Friday, His name is a benchmark in music radio formats and his voice represents thereal brand of the programme. The music format see below is addressed to urban listeners and a young audience. Music is mixed live by DJ Frankie B, an international music producer and sound designer well-known on the clubscene.
The presenter, himself a musician and DJ, frequently performs with Frankie B. The programme was chosenbecause of its great appeal to younger generations this is in fact the most important show addressed to them ,for its cross media approach and for its considerable and innovative use of social media. Once or twice a week usually Tuesdays and Thursdays the playlist is user-generated, that is it is put together by the community oflisteners together with the presenter.
The selection is made during the day before the evening show on theFacebook fan page of the programme. The fans are young and extremely active. They post an average of 60 to You Tube links to music videos every day even on weekends. The page is constantly updated throughout theday. Fans keep on posting at every hour, day and night. It resembles a collective stream of consciousness. Music video posting is the realglue of the RaiTunes community.
The listeners of the show are used to music shows, are used to go to concertsand they behave like a concert audience. The fans who post on the wall demonstrate a wide musical knowledge,perfectly matching the musical choice of the presenter. Before and after the show the fans keep on posting music and making comments about it, but when theshow begins something special happens: they stop posting music and start listening to the programme, leavingthe FB page open on their computers.
During the 80 minutes of the show the FB page is updated almost everyminute with comments and questions about the music played by the DJ. Doing radio in the age of Facebookaverage of 60 to 80 comments on the wall, like a concert audience chatting about what it is listening to.
Every daythe same dynamic takes place: when the programme begins, fans stop posting videos it is like when a concertbegins and the audience falls silent : they agree to enter into another dimension, the spectacular one. The changeof behaviour on the FB fan page marks a ritual passage.
Presenter and listeners recognise that they belong to thesame tribe and taking part in the show means celebrating the music they share. Music is the totem around whichpeople gather. Listeners would like to listen to more music, butwhen the show comes to an end, they can only continue to post other music on the FB wall and listen to the musicchosen by their peers.
A few minutes after the end of the show the RaiTunes team publishes a You Tube video playlist on FB, acollection of videos of all the songs played during the episode that has just ended. TwitterTwitter is frequently updated by the production team, to disseminate contents, news and You Tube playlistsavailable on other platforms. Broadcast use only. WebsiteThe website of the programme contains the archive of all the episodes aired so far, available for listening toin streaming.
During the show it is possible to see what is going on in the studio through a mobile webcamsituated on the roof. The webcam frames the presenter and his guests and is remote-controlled by the socialmedia manager, on the other side of the studio. Case history 2: CaterpillarBroadcaster: Radio 2 Rai www. Conceived as a drive time talk show, it is the most listened-to programme on Italian radio in itstime slot.
It provides an independent, tongue-in-cheek take on national and foreign current affairs. Phone talk plays akey role, occupying more than one third of the programme listeners, correspondents, politicians, artists, critics,etc. Tiziano BoniniPodcasts are easy to access from the Rai iPhone applicationSocial media activityBlogThe blog is updated every day with a synopsis of the latest show and videos of the music played. It is usedas a multimedia archive of the programme.
The morning after the show a podcast is available for do wnload also via Facebook. Thepresenters and authors of the programme usually join the conversation and interact directly with their fans. Fanscan also find relevant excerpts of the show a live music show, poetry by the correspondent Marco Ardemagni,satirical videos available on demand on the fan page, extra contents not aired during the show and extra contentnot suitable for radio video interviews from the correspondents, text notes, collection of photos of special events.
TwitterThe Caterpillar Twitter profile page, however, is more institutional and formal. It is only used as a one-tomanymedium, in order to disseminate to "followers" issues and links related to the programme. It looks more likea newspaper-style homepage. Audience participationFacebook fans of the programme post comments both in real time during the show and after. Fanspublish an average of 7 to 15 wall posts every day. Listeners use Facebook not only to show whether they likesomething that has been broadcast or not, but also to publish news and links they find useful, either for theprogramme or for the "Caterpillar community".
The radio show and the Facebook page are both examples of networked media, since they rely heavily onuser generated content and comments. Every day the presenter tells the story of his life as if it was an22 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Doing radio in the age of Facebookaudio diary and shares his experiences with the listeners.
The second part of the programme is based on thephone calls of listeners who want to share their private stories. Fans and friends start to reply to thepresenter's call with comments and long posts, sharing private experiences of everyday life through Facebook. The author of theprogramme has accustomed his Facebook audience to expect one call every morning.
He opens the game withthe first post of the day, letting the listeners be the main characters of the play on the Facebook stage. During theweek of observation, the presenter's calls received between 25 and 80 comments, depending on the popularity ofthe topic.
Almost every day the author chooses one story among the best ones appeared on Facebook in the hoursbefore the show. Usually the first phone call of the day comes from a Facebook fan, then the presenter starts to take other livephone calls too. Sometimes fans spontaneously reply to the call of the day by posting an excerpt of a film or asong that reminds them of the topic of the day on the Wall.
The presenter normally edits and uses these contentsembedding them into the radio flow of the episode of the day. One hour before the show the author posts a YouTube link to the video of the song that will be broadcast during his story. Facebook is conceived as a mine ofrough contents to be chosen, edited and then embedded into the radio production flow. Comments, life stories,links to video or audio contents, are used by the author and his team as material for the production of theforthcoming show.
During the show: fans and friends that are listening to the show through the web post comments about theprogramme on the wall. After the show: fans keep on commenting the show that has just ended and start to post on the wall aphoto shot by them that can represent where they are in that very moment emotionally or geographically.
During the observed week fans published an average of 6 to 20 posts per day on the wall of theprogramme, while the programme's team made between 3 and 5 posts per day. RaiTunes uses the music links suggested by the audience,Caterpillar uses the news links suggested by the audience, Io Sono Qui uses the life stories told by the audienceand its content suggestions photos, video, songs. Tiziano BoniniSocial media Manifesto for radioEven if social media use has entered the production routine of radio only in the last two to three years,turning out to be a crucial tool, but quite often misunderstood and underestimated too, in the case historiesanalysed so far we can note many similar social media practices, which are both effective and innovative.
Thecomparative study reveals that broadcasters have finally started to understand the importance of social media innurturing their relation with audiences, like an umbilical cord connecting listeners to producers while the radio isoff. As a conclusion, we will try to put together the best practices discovered during the research and write a kin do f Social Media Manifesto, or more simply, a bare bones guide to the ideal social media strategy for broadcasters.
Dramaturgic structureSocial media management is an authorial and creative work. It is similar to the work of a theatre directorand has to do with storytelling. And storytelling has its rules. Social media spaces are not virtual at all, they arelively spaces where people attempt to show themselves at their best, making great efforts to perform one of thecharacters they would love to look like in real life.
As people's FB and TW profiles are nothing but storytellingperformances, programmes' profiles have to address issues of performance and storytelling too. The most successful Facebook and Twitter pages analysed so far all share a specific and clearlyrecognisable dramaturgic structure: frequent, cyclical and regular updates, every day. Facebook and Twitterprovide a flood of data, and posts and tweets will quickly flow off followers' screens.
Tweeting frequently will builda bigger following. Radio producers have to show listeners that they are always alive, always present, and theyhave to convince them to visit their page more often during the day. They have to build expectations among theirfollowers.
Posting 15 tweets a day, but all in the same half hour, will not do , as most of the followers will not evensee them. Radio producers have to educate the public, making them feel that their page is constantly updatedwith valuable contents. Second Act - During the show: InterActWe have noticed that successful work and presence on social media generates a continual flow ofcomments and updates from listeners during the show.
Third Act — After the show: the show must go onSuccessful programmes are conceived like multimedia projects. When the radio show comes to an end,the programme continues on the web. Cross media interactionConnect all the platforms and enforce communication flows between them. Doing radio in the age of Facebookin talk shows is to give the same importance to listener feedback, no matter which platform they came from email, phone call, sms, Facebook, Twitter.
The debate around the issue of the day starts on social media, thencontinues on air: the presenters keep quoting comments made in real time on social networks. If people get used to knowing that what happens in the social mediasphere is valuable for the programmetoo, they will participate more. Presenters and authors of the programme have to play at the listeners' level, and to build a fair and straightinteraction with them.
Every time you post something on social media you should provide it with a context for itto be properly understood, and personalise information, adding your personal view or feeling. Every podcast alertyou make has to be accompanied by a quick and personal synopsis of the programme contents, using a catchylanguage, not the cold and standardised language of marketing but the warmer one of true personal engagementwith it.
Every post is a little story. Take advantage of General Intellect and realize Walter Benjamin's dreamSocial media are wonderful tools for nurturing and empowering the General Intellect 2. Thanks to theirnetworked structure, social media seem to be making the dream of Brecht and Benjamin 3 come true: listenersbecoming authors UGC. Among your listeners lie hundreds of experts in different fields willing to take part incontent production.
Caterpillar RAI perfectly outsources some reporting to the listeners and takes advantage ofcitizen journalism: its listeners publish suggestions about topics to be discussed and offer themselves as reportersfrom the place they live in.
Ask listeners to tweet their reports in real time while travelling. The minds of thelisteners, once connected through social media, can be very powerful and fast. Share the loveShare, quote, forward, retweet valuable contents.
Facebook and Twitterprovide a flood of data, and posts and tweets will quickly flow off followers' screens. Tweeting frequently will builda bigger following. Radio producers have to show listeners that they are always alive, always present, and theyhave to convince them to visit their page more often during the day.
They have to build expectations among theirfollowers. Posting 15 tweets a day, but all in the same half hour, will not do , as most of the followers will not evensee them. Radio producers have to educate the public, making them feel that their page is constantly updatedwith valuable contents.
Second Act - During the show: InterActWe have noticed that successful work and presence on social media generates a continual flow ofcomments and updates from listeners during the show. Third Act — After the show: the show must go onSuccessful programmes are conceived like multimedia projects. When the radio show comes to an end,the programme continues on the web.
Cross media interactionConnect all the platforms and enforce communication flows between them. Doing radio in the age of Facebookin talk shows is to give the same importance to listener feedback, no matter which platform they came from email, phone call, sms, Facebook, Twitter. The debate around the issue of the day starts on social media, thencontinues on air: the presenters keep quoting comments made in real time on social networks.
If people get used to knowing that what happens in the social mediasphere is valuable for the programmetoo, they will participate more. Presenters and authors of the programme have to play at the listeners' level, and to build a fair and straightinteraction with them. Every time you post something on social media you should provide it with a context for itto be properly understood, and personalise information, adding your personal view or feeling.
Every podcast alertyou make has to be accompanied by a quick and personal synopsis of the programme contents, using a catchylanguage, not the cold and standardised language of marketing but the warmer one of true personal engagementwith it.
Every post is a little story. Take advantage of General Intellect and realize Walter Benjamin's dreamSocial media are wonderful tools for nurturing and empowering the General Intellect 2. Thanks to theirnetworked structure, social media seem to be making the dream of Brecht and Benjamin 3 come true: listenersbecoming authors UGC.
Among your listeners lie hundreds of experts in different fields willing to take part incontent production. Caterpillar RAI perfectly outsources some reporting to the listeners and takes advantage ofcitizen journalism: its listeners publish suggestions about topics to be discussed and offer themselves as reportersfrom the place they live in. Ask listeners to tweet their reports in real time while travelling.
The minds of thelisteners, once connected through social media, can be very powerful and fast. Share the loveShare, quote, forward, retweet valuable contents. You need to give in order to get. ReferencesAnderson, Benedict La radio. Au microphone: Dr. Walter Benjamin. Tiziano BoniniVol. On the Higher Education context many changes are occurring due to the introduction of newlearning paradigms, many of them take advantage of web 2.
Social networks are currently being a do pted in many Higher Education communities as platformsto support the interaction among community members, taking advantage of the potential of thosenetworks to foster strong and meaningful relationships and support the awareness andconsolidation of group identity. This potential is being explored to promote new possibilities forteaching and learning that include new approaches such as the personal learning environments.
This article addresses the potential that radio services have for Higher Education communities in aweb 2. The article explores theperceptions that Aveiro academic members have about webradio potentialities in terms of sense ofbelonging creation and community cohesion. Keywords: webradio, university, community, social networks Radio as a service of a university communityThe incorporation of the radio in the university field, as well as their potential use by the academiccommunity, is not a recent phenomenon.
The first initiative of this kind took place in at the University ofWisconsin Faus, College radio refers to a type of station that operates within an academic community and presentscharacteristics of community radio and educational ones. These stations can be a global institutional projectinvolving the entire university community or an initiative from a more restricted entity faculty, student union,student-teacher of a specific subject… Sauls, 1.
In fact, the phenomenon of college radio has evolved from the first experimental stations and, nowadays,has multiple configurations depending on the technological support broadcast FM, AM, web , audience of aclosed circuit to a wider community of listeners , aims education, outreach, entertainment or managementmodels Sauls, 2.
Characteristics that imply a programming for the college radio, different from commercial ones. This type of stations, to which also belong community radio stations, is characterized by uncommercialobjectives and social vocation. College radio has also a cohesive feature that, combined with the fact that itoperates within an academic community, gives it characteristics of community radio stations. Indeed the main goal of any college radio is to provide a service to the community, regardless of whetherit is a strictly academic community or a wider community Sauls, 2.
The purpose of this paper is to deepen into the perceptions that different audiences in the academiccommunity of Aveiro have about the potential of a college radio for the community cohesion and the promotionof a sense of belonging,. The underlying conception of the university webradio is here a platform with links tosocial networks, a space to share materials among professors-students or students-students, and other kind ofinteraction tools. Radio transposition to the Internet offers lots of potentialities for the college stations.
In fact, since the early college radio web initiatives that took place in the late 90's, thisphenomenon has been expanding. The radiomorphosis. A new paradigm based on the interactionThe mediamorphosis Fidler, in radio renewed the audio product with the addition of componentsinherent to digital system. Thus, webradio set up a platform where converge multiple features of the conventional media with thosederived from its new multimedia essence like flexibility, ubiquity, synchronous and asynchronous communication,language and interactive multimedia.
The phenomenon of radiomorphosis Prata, was reflected primarily on the genres and on theinteraction. Two connected areas that establish the essence of the Internet medium and alter broadcastingconcept nature Cordeiro, From the perspective of interaction, the transfer from terrestrial radio to the web has strengthenedrelations with the user through new forms of relationship. Interaction that has evolved from participation viaemail, an e-review of wiretapping tradicional model, to other nearish and instantaneous modes like socialnetworks.
This is due to the return of listeners, interacting in relation tobroadcast content and also due to the release profile on portals, directories and virtual communities" Kischinhevsky, Radio 2. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe interaction of these listeners in multiple social networks establishes a relation between them and thepractitioner, a relationship which allows real-time feedback regarding the contents conveyed.
This enablesconsolidation of collaborative media based on a single network that combines social networking and various webtools 2. In this context,prosumer figure rises up as a listener consumer and content producer at once Toffler The multimedia nature of the web allows to push the limits established between the radio and its listeners.
A relation marked by the fact that, as Moare stressed inBuffarah Junior, 6 there is no place on the net for passive recipients. The radio experience at that time,new concepts and gain time previously inaccessible devices " Ahmed, This new potential of Internet radio enables its use in a community college with multiple objectives. The characteristics of this digital natives group can be considered convergent with the web broadcastingpotentiality: "nomadism, individualism, customization and personalization, exhibition and voyeurism, public andprivate space, memory of the generation on demand and a young profile in transformation" Rodrigues da Cunha, This convergence should not be dismissed on college radio.
Metho do logyTo accomplish the aim of assessing the perceptions that Aveiro University members from now on AU have about webradio potential for academic community cohesion, an approach to its main audiences has beencarried out: students and professors. An approach that a do pted different samples, analysis tool and metho do logy. The selection of both convenience samples was do ne according to different criteria. StudentsAccording to Rose and Lenski and Baker students are configured as the primary recipient of auniversity webradio.
This is a circumstance of special interest from the point of view of webradios potential foruniversity community cohesion. A test sample of 78 individuals belonging to three different groups of students in the UA was chosen:communication graduate students masters and do ctorates , students coursing other subjects undergraduate andgraduate and foreign students-researchers in various scientific areas.
The selection of the second group of 18 undergraduate and graduate in other scientific areas was due tothe need for a sample of students from the AU whose media consumption, and ideas regarding the potential ofan university webradio, would not be influencied by their proximity to the field. This sample could offer a differentperspective from communication students. The third group consisted on 15 foreign students-researchers all of them users of the residence of the UA as a representation of the relevance from this population in Aveiro university community.
These three groups of students have in common their status as active users of social networks one ormore. This volume of hits in the sample reveals a prevailing culture of networks that could be transferred to theuniversity community realm. Transfer that would enable the establishment of horizontal links between equals ,vertical students-professors and even of diagonal type with other audiences AU encouraging the universitycommunity cohesion.
Figure 1. Frequency of use of social networks among students in the sampleThe questionnaire was chosen as the tool to understand the precepts that students have about thepotential of webradios for the university community. Data was collected quantitatively and qualitatively throughdifferent types of questions depending on the type of response: open, closed, multiple choice, yes or no, Likertscale or hierarchy scale. The last part of the questionnaire focused on students preferences and perceptions about webradios andtheir ability to establish relationships with other community members, to strengthen the academic community andto foster a sense of belonging.
It also included other issues, regarding the use of social media, as other tools ofweb 2. In order to validate the questionnaire, acontrol group of five individuals belonging to the population under study was used, which allowed theimprovement of the formulation of some questions, as well as the overall coherence and organization of this datacollection tool.
ProfessorsProfessors are the other main public from college radio and, for this reason, it would be interesting to learnabout their perception about college radio possibilities to strengthen of the academic community. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsin the research as a another sample could offer a richer vision of students answers about college radio and itscharacteristics.
This selection is based on the assumption that, given their expertise, these professors would present abroad knowledge of new media and its possibilities, as well as offers a critical perspective of them. In this sense, to get as much information as possible about the idea that professors have over theuniversity webradios, in-depth interview was chosen as a research tool.
An interview of 20 minutes was structured around three blocks of questions: their perception of web radioas a casual user, their perception of the possibilities of this platform for the university community in general, andtheir perception of potentials that this webradio could provide for their specific teaching. The contributions madeby professors during the course of these interviews were recorded in audio format and revised.
This reviewallowed to draw ideas for the next phase of this research. Main resultsThe work developed allowed us to deepen into the precepts that, both students and professors, haveabout the benefits of a webradio implementation for the Aveiro university community. These results werestructured in two blocks according to the sample and metho do logical differences.
StudentsSurveyed students were particularly receptive to a webradio creation in the context of the Aveiro academycommunity. However, students are not so sure that this platform is a good way to establish links between the differentaudiences of university webradio. This increase reflects a balancebetween those who advocate the potential of university webradios to establish relationships with peers and thosewho seem critics. University webradio platform interaction is a good form to establish relationships with professors32 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe students concept about the webradio platforms potential to meet people or to promote a closerrelationship with classmates is a reflection of their use of social networks.
So the fact of coursing the same degree,course or courses, do es not imply the need for online links. A completely different situation is reflected in relationships with professors. The possibility to establish such relationships between two different audiences from the university sphereallows to foresee the perception of university webradios as a cohesiveness element for this kind of community Figure 5.
University webradio can promote university community cohesionAlthough most of the students do not totally agree with the creation a webradio platform to fosterinterpersonal interaction among peers or among professors, this trend is opposite when they are asked about itschances for community cohesion. University webradio can promote the feeling of university community membershipThe same happens with the feeling of belonging. Most students think that the creation of the AU webradioincreases the identification of academic community members with the university.
A similar percentage of those individuals also raises the possibility that this webradio becometheir favourite station. The sum of these realities would foster a community of loyal listeners that would stillremain at the basis of a constant feedback process: the fact that the radio becomes a favourite station favours anincreases of the pride of belonging, which in turn brings more listeners to the radio, etc.
However, despite their consideration of the university webradio for the cohesion of the academiccommunity and of its high consumption of social networks, only few students would incorporate them into aplatform of university webradio. Only a third of the sample 37 individuals thinks that it would be interesting toinclude a link to the social networks. ProfessorsLikewise students, professors interviewed considered interesting the implementation a webradio universityin Aveiro academic community.
This interest was justified by the need to give visibility to the activities of the university and to the type ofwork do ne by its researchers. Visibility of internal type, as a channel to support the dissemination of daily activitiesbeyond the university web with low reading among students , and external, to engage a broader community inthe events taking place in the academic institution.
Regarding the role of this webradio for the university community cohesion, all professors intervieweddefended its value for the creation of a sense of belonging. In fact, for them, any new form of connection betweenthe various groups of the university improves community cohesion. A connection powered in webradio by prideof belonging.
This pride of belonging is based, as targeted by professors interviewed in: Providing the community with a new channel that gives information about the events developed in theframework of the university quickly and efficiently. Professors indicated that, despite the many events heldat the UA, there is some opacity of information. Any initiative that promotes the flow of information isoptimal to increase this sense of belonging.
An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptions Informing society about research, experience or other events taking place in the AU or in collaborationwith it. The disclosure of the activities carried out in the university not only contributes to the creation, orenhancement, of brand image of the AU, but also increases the pride of belonging of its members.
In thissense, one of the professors interviewed referred to a television program of the AU which, despite the earlymorning broadcast, contributed to the identification of members of the community with the university.
Fostering collaboration between community members in developing content for this radio. This radiomanager should seek tools to review, create content, collaborate on the development of the grid etc. Thefact that students have a channel to whose contents they could collaborate is an element of interest for anidentification with the institution.
Similarsituation occurs when the voices of leaders are familiar. Also, these professors believe that social networks are an essential element to make horizontal and verticalcommunication easy, and with it, to facilitate the cohesion of the university community.
Otherwise, any project is stillborn". In short, professors defend the appropriateness of a webradio university for the academic communitycohesion. In this defense, some respondents cited the RUM University of Minho radio, Portugal as an example ofa station that encourages pride of belonging among members of the university community. These professors based on webradio cohesive role of a university the possibility of establishing a mediumto a large consumption by different audiences, sensitive to the tastes and interests of its members as well as aunique way of approaching what is happening in this community university.
Both groups believe that the radio platform on the web can be interesting for the cohesion of theacademic community and foster a sense of belonging. But students do not give too much value to this platform asa place to meet people or engage in closer relationships between classmates.
Professors identified three issues which can build pride in belonging: to have a new channel of internalcommunication; the dissemination of University activities to the society and its recognition by the latter; and theinvolvement of different groups of the academic community in order to develop content for this radio.
When determining the type of social interaction tools that the webradio must configured, it is remarkablethat, while professors consider a "must" to create a platform strongly connected to social networks, only one thir do f the students consider it appropriate. In short, for students and professors, the implementation of a webradio university is an important elementto foster the university community both unity and communication a new channel of communication internal orexternal , by the participation in content production and with it, by the development of a sense of belonging.
Afeeling summed up in this sentence: "I am an official channel of the university and I have contributed to this". ReferencesAlbarran, Alan B. Radio Broadcasting Industry. Journal of Radio and Audio Media, Vol. New York: Semiotexte, pp. La Radio. Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.
Atlantic Journal of Comunication, Vol. Comunicar, Vol. On the Horizont, Vol. Popular Music and Communication. Newbury Parl: Sage, pp. Joint Meetings of the Popular Culture Association. Studies in Popular Cultura, Vol. Braga: Universidade do Minho , pp. These new stations have emerged into a competitive broadcastingenvironment at a time of great technological change.
New digital broadcasting platforms arebeginning to become established in parallel with Internet and mobile phone network audiodelivery mechanisms and, as a result, the future technical development of the medium as a wholeis in something of a state of flux. At the heart of Community Radio is a range of diverse linkages and interactions with members ofindividual target communities. Within such a diverse broadcasting sector, how has the uptake ofso-called new media technologies developed, not just in terms of linear programme delivery, butalso with respect to podcasting, "listen again" services and the provision of additional text andvideo-based content?
This paper summarises the degree of uptake of new media technologies by the Community Radio sector and examines some of the impacts that may result from their use, both concerning theconsumption and the production of broadcast content. It concludes by suggesting how the futuredevelopment of Community Radio broadcasting in the UK may be influenced by the gradualacceptance of such new delivery platforms and the opportunities that may arise from suchacceptance.
Keywords: radio, community radio, technologyIntroductionOver recent years, the impact of Internet-based and other so-called 'new technologies' on Community Radio services has become increasingly important in a wide variety of ways stretching beyond the obviousprovision of additional programme content delivery opportunities. However, the arrival of the various newtechnologies is also something of a do uble-edged sword, bringing threats as well as opportunities to theCommunity Radio sector around the world.
As the senior electronic medium, broadcast radio has a long history. Evolving over time, radio hasexpanded both in terms of the number of stations broadcast and the nature of such stations. In a Europeancontext, following an early experimental period, most jurisdictions established public service broadcasting as thefoundation of their broadcast radio provision. Later, legislative and regulatory frameworks were adapted and PSBproviders found themselves subject of commercial competition.
Lawrie Hallettregulatory frameworks have gradually begun to change again, this time to accommodate Community Radio , theincreasing variety of broadcast radio services reflecting the growing diversity of the societies in which they arebased. At the same time, however, broadcast media infrastructure is also changing. Internally, the medium isadapting to the emergence of various digital radio broadcasting platforms, whilst externally, the effectiveness ofso-called new media platforms is also creating opportunities and threats for broadcasters.
The result of thiscombination of circumstances is that proponents of Community Radio seeking to establish and cement the sectoras a robust and integral third-tier of radio broadcasting, are do ing so in an atmosphere of regulatory andtechnological uncertainty and flux. Alongside the development of platforms specifically designed for broadcasting purposes, new mediatechnologies have also been impacting on the operation of broadcast radio.
Not only do the Internet the mobilephone networks provide alternative platforms for the delivery of linear radio in real time, but they also provideopportunities for the delivery of radio which is directly linked to other types of media content, and which caninclude 'on-demand' elements that can be both time-shifted and non-linear, such as 'listen again' services andpodcast programmes.
The Role of Community Radio There are some underlying commonalities which define community radio, such as operation on a not forprofit basis, a commitment to accountability and to the involvement of members of the target community in theoperation and management of the service concerned.
However, a key feature of the sector as a whole lies in itsdiversity, each station is inevitably "shaped by its environment and the distinct culture, history and reality of thecommunity it serves" Buckley et al. Put another way, there is no such thing as a typical communityradio service. Fundamentally, Community Radio services exist to serve defined communities, of place, or of interest.
Nevertheless, well over such stations have been givenpermission to broadcast since full-time licensing commenced in , and more are currently in the process ofbeing licensed. As well as stations broadcasting to geographical communities, there are stations serving a varietyof niche and specialist communities, including ethnic and religious minorities, children, retired people, militarygarrisons, universities and the arts.
This public do cument, which is made available on-line by theU. To achieve the various social gain, access and accountability objectives effectively, Community Radio services require a high degree of integration with the membership of their target communities. Such integrationtakes time and effort to develop and sustain. In practical terms, effective and successful Community Radio services require underpinning structures and processes to help establish, sustain and broaden the range oflinkages and opportunities for interaction with their target communities.
In the U. A Digital Dilemma? Although the world of radio broadcasting is changing fast, the vast majority of Community Radio servicesstill currently depend on analogue broadcast frequencies in order to deliver their programming to mass audiencesin a cost effective manner. It is increasingly the case that other non-broadcast delivery methods, such as webstreamingand pod-casting, are also able to attract listeners. However, despite their ability to deliver both linearand non-linear content, as yet, such platforms can only be considered supplementary to the use of traditionalbroadcast technologies and they are certainly not yet universally available in the same way that content deliveryvia the analogue broadcasting do main has been for many years.
In parallel, the arrival of digital radio broadcasting, in all its various forms, has resulted in politicians andregulators attempting to drive forward a process of technological transition. A key problem for theCommunity Radio sector is that the various proposals put forward by European policy makers, have tended tofocus pre do minantly on the requirements of the commercial and PSB sectors, thereby leaving Community Radio broadcasters on the periphery with a variety of resultant problems and risks for the future.
Ask politicians or regulators about Community Radio and they won't always know what you are talkingabout. Ask the same people about PSB or commercial radio and not only will they know what you are talkingabout but, almost certainly, they will also have some pretty firm opinions on the subject, perhaps dictated by theirpolitical affiliations rather than by any deep interest and understanding of the specific issues involved!
Thecomparatively limited profile of Community Radio is, in part, due to the sector's relatively small-scale bothnumerically in terms of stations broadcasting, and in relation to the often deliberately limited geographical focusof such stations.
However, it is also due to the fact that, in most jurisdictions, the sector is comparatively youngand therefore inevitably lacking in terms of track-record. It is a simple fact that, in addition to requiring a greatdeal of effort, relationships with politicians, regulators, funding bodies and partner organisations take aconsiderable length of time to establish and solidify.
The historical tendency of European policy-makers to prioritise the requirements of larger PSB andcommercial broadcasters is perhaps not surprising, given the far greater scale of these sectors in comparison toCommunity Radio broadcasting. The difficult for community broadcasters is that, in practice, this approach hasresulted in the promotion of multiplex digital platforms, such as DAB, which are simply not designed to cater forsmaller-scale local commercial and 'non-profit' Community Radio services, each with its own defined geographicalcoverage requirements.
Furthermore the current existence of a variety of jurisdiction-specific approaches to the'digital migration' of radio services in Europe creates uncertainty as to the eventual shape of the emergingtechnical and policy environment. Such political and regulatory involvement in the promotion of digital radio broadcasting, is in completecontrast to the virtual lack of such engagement with the various emerging non-broadcast delivery methods for'radio' programming content, using mobile phone networks and the Internet.
Historically, the digitalisationdiscourse as it relates to radio broadcasting has typically been characterised by considerable optimism on the partof those developing the various systems involved. Encouraged by such optimism, and by the promise ofadditional broadcasting capacity, politicians and regulators in many jurisdictions have driven forward theintroduction of new transmission platforms.
However, despite such official support, broadcasters and the publicECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Halletttend to remain somewhat wary of investing in the technology and conversely remain largely supportive oftraditional FM broadcasting in particular.
In short, the problem with digital radio platforms is that they offer toofew advantages over the older, established, analogue technologies. In the eyes of the general public, theperipheral advantages offered, including additional channel capacity and enhanced radio-text etc. With various digital transmission platforms now either operational or nearing launch, it remains impossibleto predict which option or options will eventually emerge as the accepted standards in the longer term.
Thisprocess of change is being further complicated by the increasing impacts of other, non-broadcast, audio deliveryplatforms. However, what is clear is that some digital radio broadcasting platforms are more flexible than othersand that some are best suited only to particular types of radio broadcasting. As they exist today, none of thedigital broadcast radio platforms currently operating are able to provide a completely compatible alternative toanalogue radio broadcasting in all its various forms.
Despite pressure for the 'digital migration' of many radio services, given the ubiquitous and flexible natureof FM broadcasting, it also seems likely that, in the majority of jurisdictions at least, its continued use forbroadcasting remains secure for the foreseeable future. The 'opportunity cost' associated with continuing to useBand II FM for small-scale broadcasting services, even after larger stations have moved to alternative platforms,is minimal because the frequencies involved have wavelengths which make their use for telecommunicationsservices less than ideal.
In addition, as both the AM and FM bands are internationally allocated for broadcasting and are likely to remain so for many years to come , there are limits as to what other uses they may be put to. Recent suggestions by Ed Richards, the Chief Executive of Ofcom, that Band II could be used for so-called 'whitespace'devices Ofcom, may have some validity in the medium term, but, even if this proves to be the case,such devices could be interleaved to operate alongside traditional analogue broadcasting transmitters.
Although the advent of digital radio transmission platforms offers at least the potential to help reduce theimbalance between supply and demand in terms of broadcast frequency availability, such developments certainly do not herald a complete end to frequency scarcity.
Inevitably therefore, competition for access to broadcastingspectrum rights will remain a barrier to entry for the foreseeable future and for many years to come. Assuming anongoing requirement for access to the airwaves, the question for Community Radio broadcasters is how best canthey obtain usage rights to a higher percentage of total available radio-broadcasting frequencies than is presentlythe case?
If the sector is to be successful in such endeavours, it needs to continue to build up its circle of friends. It will need to convince politicians and regulators of the strength of its case, something which may be easier saidthan do ne in the context of the strong, well organised lobbying capacity available to competing PSB andcommercial operators.
In part because of such frequency scarcity issues, but also because of the various additional advantageswhich such technologies offer. Community Radio has been quick to embrace a variety of Internet-based andmobile phone network technologies in order to enhance the delivery of their various services. However, when itcomes to the alternative of delivery of content via the Internet and other communications networks, the economicand operational models are somewhat different, for both broadcaster and listener alike.
For the purposes of thispaper, mobile phone networks can be considered a sub-set of Internet delivery, adding not only long-rangewireless connectivity and the delivery of web-based and other applications to portable devices, but also providingtheir own specific additional facilities such as text and picture messaging.
In light of such developments and as new forms of mobile devices, such assmart-phones and 3G connected net-books, laptops and the tablet form PC, become increasingly prevalent, thedivide between the fixed line Internet and mobile telephony networks is becoming increasingly blurred. Dealing with the broadcaster first, in some respects, the Internet provides additional opportunities that are,quite simply, beyond the capability of traditional broadcasting platforms.
Staying with tools for broadcasters themselves, a further advantage of the Internet is its ability to deliverstreams of a station's live output. In other words, a copy of the station's traditional broadcast output can bedelivered in real-time to listeners who might be outside the coverage service area of the station's AM or FMtransmissions, or who might, for example, prefer to access such a stream while they work at an office computerterminal or from a laptop.
Because of the streaming nature of such services, their consumption requires that each listeneraccessing them has ongoing connectivity to the Internet for the duration of listening. Most flexible in terms of options for its consumption is the podcast. Those provided by radio broadcasterscan be regarded as being similar to those from other sources, although, because of their expertise and experiencein the sound medium, podcasts produced by radio professionals often have higher than average productionvalues.
The main advantage of the podcast over streaming is that it frees the user from the need for a constantconnection to the Internet. Typically, in a matter of a few seconds these can be do wnloaded to a computer, MP3player or mobile phone for later consumption and this process can be automated such that series programmingcontent is not missed by accident.
Once do wnloaded, not only can they be listened to at any time, but also, theycan then be easily archived and stored indefinitely by the user, for repeated listening at a later date. Copyrightissues aside, being typically provided in MP3 format, they can, at least in practical terms, also be copied foronward distribution to other potential listeners.
The key point regarding these Internet delivery options is that, to a greater or lesser extent, each providesadditional flexibility in relation to the consumption of broadcast content. Not only are the temporal constraints ofscheduling removed, but also, because content can be accessed outside the broadcast transmission service area ofthe station concerned, so too are geographical constraints on reception.
Moreover, because, unlike traditionalbroadcasting, the Internet is fundamentally a bi-directional medium, it intrinsically enhances opportunities forinteraction between broadcasters and their audiences generally, and specifically in relation to the focus of thispaper, between Community Radio services and members of their target communities. With a little effort,community-based broadcasters can learn a great deal about their target community through a simple analysis ofwho is listening to what and where on-line.
Whilst on-line consumption of content cannot be assumed toECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Hallettduplicate that carried out via traditional broadcasting platforms, it can at least provide some useful qualitativedata for programme makers and station management. The Limits of New TechnologiesAlthough the use of such non-broadcast platforms can provide broadcasters with additional flexibility, for avariety of reasons, they do not yet constitute a replacement for traditional broadcast platforms.
To begin with,rather than being one-to-many broadcasting platforms, both the Internet as currently constituted for audiocontent and the mobile phone are primarily designed as one-to-one communications platforms. At present,mobile phone and mobile Internet platforms, lack universality and tend towards end-user cost models whichdiscourage the consumption of large amounts of data.
In addition, the take-up of such platforms can be lower inareas of relative socio-economic deprivation, which are often the focus of Community Radio services. However, itis quite clear that, as the carrying capacity of mobile phone networks expands and as improved methods ofmobile Internet delivery, such as WiMax, are implemented, this situation will change for the better.
In somejurisdictions "all-you-can-eat" data tariffs are already becoming available at a relatively reasonable cost althoughconnectivity and capacity both remain potential stumbling blocks to reliable portable operation. Despite variouslimitations, convergence between broadcasting and communications platforms is already happening and, as aresult, after a long period of relative inertia, radio broadcasting is currently being exposed to the challenges of aperiod of considerable ongoing change.
Despite its various advantages and benefits for broadcasters, whatever else it may be, the Internet is mostdefinitely not a broadcast medium, that is to say, it is not a one-to-many medium, free at the point ofconsumption. At least in technical terms, once a content stream has been made available,where in the world it is consumed becomes largely irrelevant although, for some forms of content at least, theremay be financial implications related to copyright issues.
While it may be technically possible for individualjurisdictions to block or otherwise make unavailable specific types of content or particular web addresses, suchtechniques are rarely applied to anything other than overtly sexually explicit materials and, in some moreauthoritarian regimes, particular types of political content. The benefits of increased geographical reach, do however come at a price.
Broadcasters using the Internetare faced with a marginal cost per each additional listener to the data-stream concerned. In other words, becausecosts to the broadcaster are directly related to the total amount of data being delivered by it, the greater theaverage number of listeners, and the longer they listen, the greater the total cost to the broadcaster.
Morespecifically, it is the concurrent total number of listeners which can have the greatest impact upon streamingcosts. Here it is the cost of overall capacity provision rather than the actual cost of data delivery which is the issue. The greater the potential number of concurrent streams that provision is made for, the greater the cost to thebroadcaster.
Thus, in a financial sense at least, popular Internet broadcasters really can become victims of theirown success! The issue of limitations within the network structure and the transmission protocols of the Internet an do ther IP-based networks is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is worth noting that although there areways to ameliorate the marginal cost per additional listener for example though the use of multi-cast protocolswhere available, or by employing torrent-like streams , for smaller broadcasters, and for reasons of economies ofscale, such approaches are likely to be impractical, or at best yield only marginally beneficial economic gains.
A potential problem for small-scale broadcasters in some jurisdictions is the issue of net-neutrality. Inthose countries where telecommunications companies and Internet service providers have been allowed to give44 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Inareas where network infrastructure is well-developed, this issue may not be too serious a problem, as even highquality audio streams occupy a relatively small amount of bandwidth when compared to either standard or highdefinition video streams.
However, where network capacity is limited, Community Radio services could find theirstreams disrupted by parallel demand for priority traffic. A further issue confronting broadcasters when using the Internet as a delivery platform is its lack ofuniversality when compared to traditional broadcasting. To begin with, the required broad-band Internetconnection is by no means universal, especially within less economically prosperous communities.
Even where abroad-band connection is present, listening to audio streams on a computer is one thing, but delivering thatstream to elsewhere in the home or office is quite another. Even more difficult is the delivery of live streaming content tomobile and portable devices.
Although it is theoretically possible to receive such material via 3G and other highcapacitymobile phone data networks, at present such networks lack robust capacity, and are particularly bad atdelivering linear content to a device on the move.
Extrapolating from recent history, there seems very little do ubt that the capacity of fixed and mobilenetworks will continue to increase and that, conversely, the associated costs of such distribution are likely todecrease. However, for the present, although the Internet is already expanding the delivery options forCommunity Radio services, specifically in relation to streamed audio many of the theoretical advantages it offersare currently somewhat hampered by technical and capacity network infrastructure limitations and, for mobileusers, the similar content capacity limitations found in associated mobile phone networks.
ConclusionsDigital delivery methods are already impacting on the activities of Community Radio broadcasters, but notin the way that might have been supposed a decade or so ago. In the United King do m at least, the sector'sinterest in taking up digital radio broadcasting opportunities has been almost non-existent, but, conversely, thevast majority of community stations have already embraced considerable use of web-based digital deliveryopportunities to supplement their traditional analogue broadcasting output.
On the broadcast radio front, recognising the various benefits of FM, the community radio sector islobbying for greater access to Band II spectrum, if and when other PSB and commercial broadcasters arepersuaded to give up simulcasting and switch their broadcasting output to digital platforms. The UK broadcastregulator, Ofcom has long since accepted that an increase in Community Radio provision on FM could be oneoutcome of any move of larger services to alternative digital platforms, such as DAB:In time, it is possible that changes such as an end to simulcasting of existing radio services on analogue anddigital platforms could free-up spectrum that will create more space for new community radio stations.
Ofcom, 28 There is however an element of risk associated with such an approach to the long-term expansion ofCommunity Radio provision. Specifically, there remains no guarantee that digital migration will be implementedand without it access to additional FM spectrum cannot be provided. On the other hand, should digital migrationbe achieved for the majority of radio stations, then community broadcasters remaining on FM could findthemselves in what has by then become an 'analogue backwater' which the majority of potential listeners are nolonger inclined to explore.
Lawrie HallettNevertheless, given the largely inappropriate nature of existing operaional digital radio broadcastingplatforms for community radio services, it is difficult to envisage how else the sector might currently approach thisissue. That said, the current limitations of digital radio broadcasting are, to a large extent, technology specific andemerging second generation platforms, such as Digital Radio Mondiale DRM and the more advanced DRM Plusstandard, have at least the potential to be more relevant to the needs of community broadcasters, assuming thatthey do eventually become an integral part of the radio broadcasting landscape.
In practical terms, the potential emergence of digital radio platforms suitable for use by independentsmall-scale remains, at best, some years off. Whilst it would be prudent for community broadcasters not todismiss the future potential of such systems, continuing to exploit technologies which provide immediate benefitshas to remain the priority. The approach of utilising web-based digital delivery methods, accessible throughcomputers and mobile devices, is already providing increased flexibility and the ability to reach out to communitydiasporas which are not within the coverage of traditional analogue broadcasts.
The Internet and associated new technologies certainly offer some clear benefits for both Community Radio broadcasters and for members of their target communities. For Community Radio , in addition toopportunities for increased operational efficiency and flexibility, the fundamental impacts of the variousdevelopments set out in this paper are three-fold. In addition, such networks providenumerous opportunities for interaction, which traditional broadcast platforms simply cannot provide.
Finally, andperhaps more profoundly, by removing the limitations of broadcast coverage, not only are individual listeners ableto access a wider range of content, but also, as a result, the very nature of target communities is altered. However, new technologies also have their limits, lacking the universality of traditional broadcast platformsand reaching only those who are sufficiently motivated, resourced and media literate enough to engage with thevarious opportunities available through them.
As yet therefore, and despite all their obvious additional benefits,they cannot be considered as replacement technologies for traditional radio broadcasting. That said, given thevarious opportunities for enhanced interactivity and flexibility which they offer, and given the underlyingimportance of such interactivity, it is perhaps not surprising that many Community Radio services have alreadyembraced such technologies as part of their wider approach to building relationships with their targetcommunities.
However, for the foreseeable future at least, traditional analogue broadcasting willcontinue to be unique in its ability to provide locally focused, universal availability at minimal cost to bothCommunity Radio broadcasters and listeners alike. Community radio broadcasters are typically, both by nature and necessity, pragmatists, seeking to servetheir target communities in the most effective and cost effective ways possible. Digital radio platforms may notbe suitable today and whilst they may just become so in future, by that time it may well be the case that othernon-broadcast solutions will have begun to do minate what today we call radio.
In fact, the most likely future for Community Radio is probably an increasingly hybrid model combining,analogue radio and digital radio platforms with Internet and mobile phone network delivery systems. However, as the technologies used todeliver Community Radio outputs develop over the coming years, already there is no do ubt that the days of singleplatform analogue broadcasting have effectively gone forever.
ReferencesBuckley, S. Duer, T. Mendel and S. Broadcasting, Voice, and Accountability. The community radio order , number Lon do n, Her Majesty's Government. The community radio order , Number Lon do n, The Office ofCommunications. Notes of guidance for community radio licence [sic] applicants and licensees, May Revisedfrom version originally published in August Lon do n, The Office of Communications. However, according to the results of a study carried out in September Herrera and Requejo, , the five major Spanish talk radio stations used this 2.
More than 4 months later, we conduct a new content analysis to checkif the situation remains the same, or if meaningful changes have been made. In this new analysis,we study the tweets posted by the official accounts of these stations over a 2-week period, January28 - February 10, Keywords: Twitter, Spain, radio, usesIntroductionIn less than 5 years, Twitter has become one of the most popular services on the so-called Web 2.
Like the telephone, it facilitates a real-timeexchange of information. Like instant messaging, the information is sent in short bursts. But it extends theaffordances of previous modes of communication by combining these features in both a one-to-many and manyto-manyframework that is public, archived and searchable. Twitter allows a large number of users to communicatewith each other simultaneously in real-time, based on an asymmetrical relationship between friends and followers. Such versatility has been noted by many disciplines wanting to take advantage of this new system ofcommunication.
After an initial phase of skepticism and observation, more and more media outlets and journalistsare joining Twitter. The aim of this paper is to analyze how major Spanish talk radio stations are making use of thisservice.
Do they use it to provide information or to express opinions? Do they use it to correct misinformation, orto gather opinions from their followers? To what extent do they talk with their audiences? Do they ask foraudience participation?
Do the stations link to their websites, blogs, or other websites apart from their own? Dothey use hashtags? These are some of the questions we attempt to answer in this paper. First, we provide a briefintroduction on Twitter as a Web 2.
Updates areshown on the user profile page, and are also immediately sent to other users who have chosen to receive them. For this reason, Twitter is also a major component of social networking sites. Since its inception,its popularity has increased rapidly, due not only to its advanced handling capabilities for reporting what ishappening in real time, but also for its utility in sharing interesting material.
Companies and institutions can also use Twitter in diverse ways. Therefore, experts recommend that userstake their time to define and understand the objectives of the service in order to develop a successful strategy. This exercise seems essential for choosing what content to tweet and for using the application in an optimal way. Why Twitter matters for news organizationsFor news organizations, several scholars e.
Among several different proposals, one by Rusbridger , editor in chief of The Guardian, seems particularly appropriate because it is complete and concise. However, the only way media can embrace its true potential is to avoid the same strategies that stationsused in the 1. Despite diverse proposals for media best practices on Twitter Harbison, ; Ingram, ; Kanalley,a, b; Orihuela, , , ; Posetti, ; Sawyer, ; Vargas, a, b the distinctionbetween good content practices and those related to form are useful for the purposes of this paper.
Content practices are related to message intentions. At this point, several scholars stress that the mediashould not care as much 1 about providing information and self-promotion. As for practices that media should avoid on this platform, Vargas turnsout to be very enlightening.
As for best form practices, scholars stress the need to: make use of a human voice 8 , link to external contentso that their own contributions can be enriched 9 , provide information in an appealing way, conduct surveysamong their followers, use hashtags in an effective and creative way, link to other networks where the mediummight have a profile, and add multimedia value to the updates through links to pictures, videos, audio files orgraphs.
Metho do logyDespite these best practices, sometimes this 2. This was one of the mainconclusions we drew at the end of , when we conducted a content analysis of the tweets posted by the fivemain Spanish talk radio stations Herrera and Requejo, In our analysis, we coded updates posted by thesestations over a 1-week period, September 6 , Theresults showed that Tweets were used for almost noother purposes.
Conversation is human and personal sometimes fun, sometimessad, sometimes angry, sometimes rejoicing. Identifying information needs, catering our products to meet them and distributing them in a way that makessense. Being willing to participate in the community as individuals, building connections and personalizing our brand. Inviting the community toget to know our people and our processes. Itinvolves: Hosting discussions in person and online on topics that matter to the community.
Valuing how a continuing dialogue can make us better journalists and improves the journalism. It involves: Soliciting and relying on user contributions. Soliciting and using user input about what we should cover and how we should allocateour resources. Valuing the role the users play in reacting to and sharing our content. Lots of other peoplehave interesting things to say - find some and re-tweet them. The best way to make social media work is to allowreporters and editors to be themselves, to be human, and to engage with readers through Twitter and Facebook and comments and blogs.
Is therea risk that someone might say something wrong? Of course there is. Have the five major Spanish talk radiostations modified their use of Twitter in a more creative way? In order to obtain a larger representation, on thisoccasion we chose 2 weeks, January 28 - February, 10, During this period, the stations posted a total of tweets, which were not uniformly distributed: Cadena Cope posted ; Cadena SER posted ; Radio 1 RNE posted 46; Onda Cero posted 41; and Punto Radio posted just 7 tweets, an average of less than one tweet everyother day.
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The Fantasy Contest Act H laid out the regulatory framework for the industry, following a similar roadmap to other states. Here was the original language that was stricken:. No wagering shall be allowed on the outcome of any athletic event, nor on any matter to be determined during an athletic event, which does not take place on the premises. Reading between the lines, this allows the MGC to regulate sports betting.
Regulators say they already do, in fact. Sports betting was subsequently added to the to-do list, and the taskforce submitted a report on both by the end of the same year. Here was the conclusion:. To date, it appears that the actual revenue generated is far behind the revenue projected by the introduction of Internet gaming.
In addition, it would seem the most likely way for Internet gaming to be productive is for states to form compacts with each other, in order to make the payoffs attractive. There are technology issues that Mississippi would have that other less rural states may not encounter, while not preventing Internet gaming from occurring, it may be more frustrating for the patron trying to logon and determining if they are located in the state or outside of the state.
As for sports betting, it is still uncertain as to whether a state can overcome the federal ban. Mississippi Sports Betting. Recent Mississippi sports betting news. Three bills aiming to expand MS sports betting to mobile platforms in the state died in committee this week. Mississippi was one of the first states to launch sports betting in but continues to be restricted to retail sportsbooks.
Multiple mobile betting bills have failed in the years […] Read More. Seventh Heaven? It looks like that inflection point is already here. Legal US sports betting is available in 21 jurisdictions so far with more on the way.
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