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Understanding WikiLeaks WikiLeaks raises intriguing questions about ethics, journalism, privacy, and governance in an age when the Internet has made the mass storage and publication of information practically free to anyone. Yet WikiLeaks would soon eclipse Cryptome. In , Chelsea Manning, then a twenty-two-year-old Army private known as Bradley,8 leaked more than a quarter million State Department and Department of Defense documents to WikiLeaks.
The leaked diplomatic cables spanned about a decade, and turned Assange and his website into household names. By , Cryptome had collected and published just 70, files, many random and hand-curated. WikiLeaks was pushing out secret information on an industrial scale. The Guccifer 2. He mentioned that a major political leak was forthcoming.
Later he persistently refused to clarify either from whom or precisely when his organization had received specific leaks. We have some sensitive information too, in particular her financial documents. One pointed a weapon at him as he stood naked in the shower. This time, extra precautions would be necessary to protect her source material. Her detentions by border officials were still fresh in her mind, and the US government had opened a secret grand jury investigation into WikiLeaks two years earlier.
So Laura relocated to Berlin. Meanwhile, she was contracting out a major renovation of her New York loft. Having been a professional chef in the Bay Area before she made her first film, Flag Wars, she was especially eager to have a working kitchen. Your experience as a target of coercive intimidation should have very quickly cowed you into compliance, but that you have continued your work gives hope that your special lesson in authoritarianism did not take; that contacting you is worth the risk.
Laura arrived safely in Berlin, but her worries continued. What if the source was some kind of crackpot — or, worse yet, an undercover agent using her to target Assange? Ironically, that report was later leaked to — and published by — none other than WikiLeaks. Africa Report No. The cable includes the text of a letter sent from Sheikh Sharif on June Bitcoin: The Future of Money? WikiLeaks had caught the imagination of those opposed to the US and other governments.
Many wanted to help. PayPal was the main means by which WikiLeaks was able to receive funds for its activities and, in , its donors gave around one million dollars. Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time. WikiLeaks was starved of funds. Others jumped at the idea. I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian. How does the United States square its trumpeting of the free flow of information and democratic rights of expression with its response to WikiLeaks? The clearest example of this is support for democracy.
Otherwise it opposes it. The United States is by no means alone on that, of course. The same is true of terror, aggression, torture, human rights, freedom of speech, whatever it might be. So the line that the enormous trove of information that was disseminated through WikiLeaks was somehow compromising U. It compromised the security that governments are usually concerned about: their security from inspection by their own populations.
Many of the classified documents have little to do with genuine security but a lot to do with preventing the population from knowing what the government is up to. There are other interesting WikiLeaks exposures. WikiLeaks, 16 July, WikiLeaks had reason to believe the source was credible however contact with this source was lost. According to these reports, the resignation was tendered around 20 days ago. Why do they hack? Underground tried to answer these questions when it was first published in The questions still seem relevant more than a decade later.
WikiLeaks , the world-famous publisher of documents leaked in the public interest, grew out of the computer underground described in this book. It is this kernel of unusual creativity, not their illegal activities, that makes the hackers in Underground so interesting. This kernel carried through to WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks revealed the creative application of technology, in the form of secure, anonymous online publishing, to the hard problem of getting governments and corporations to tell the truth.
He brought exceptional technical understanding and a detailed knowledge of the computer underground while I brought years of experience as a professional journalist and technology writer. Moreover, there was no independent journalism to respond when the U.
Attention largely shifted from the content of these documents to overblown and unsubstantiated claims that WikiLeaks was costing innocent lives, and to a personal focus on WikiLeaks leader Julian Assange. The point was to get U. It worked. Many journalists elsewhere rallied to defend basic principles about transparency and speaking truth to power. It need deal with only a handful of giants to effectively control the Internet. The consequences of this became striking in the wake of the brouhaha surrounding WikiLeaks after it released government documents in There is no evidence that the executive branch made any explicit demand of the firms to do what they did; it appears they acted proactively, possibly egged on by all the saber rattling and macho talk coming from Capitol Hill.
But the illusion that this constitutes satisfactory journalism is growing thinner. Nothing demonstrates the situation better than the release by WikiLeaks of an immense number of secret U. To some this was investigative journalism at its best, and WikiLeaks had established how superior the Internet was as an information source. It clearly threatened those in power, so this was exactly the sort of Fourth Estate a free people needed. Thanks to the Internet, some claimed, we were now truly free and had the power to hold leaders accountable.
WikiLeaks was not a journalistic organization. Donnelly, P. Foster and A. Marolt and D. Herold, Online Society in China: creating, celebrating and instrumentalising the online carnival, London: Routledge, , pp. Chapter 16 1A. In the late s, Australian politicians attempted to introduce a blacklist of sites associated with child pornography.
ISPs in the country would have been mandated to block all sites on the list, the contents of which were kept secret, making effective democratic oversight incredibly difficult. While few people would argue against blocking child porn, when WikiLeaks published a copy of the proposed blacklist in , it was revealed to have included gambling services, YouTube videos, regular porn, a dog boarding kennel, and WikiLeaks itself.
During a referendum in Catalonia on whether to declare independence from Spain, held despite the objections of Madrid, websites associated with the vote were seized, software was deleted from app stores, and users were blocked from sharing pro-independence information. Among other things, they noted overlaps in the hacking infrastructure used to target the Democratic organizations and other operations attributed to Russia, including a notable one against the German Parliament.
On June 12, he promised that WikiLeaks would release damaging Democratic emails. Why he said this remains a mystery, since the first known direct contact between the GRU and WikiLeaks occurred on June 14, though it is possible there had been a previous undetected transfer of information through intermediaries. On June 22, WikiLeaks messaged Guccifer, requesting access to any new material.
WikiLeaks promised to distribute it with a higher profile and impact than Guccifer could. On July 6, the group reached out to Guccifer again, highlighting the upcoming Democratic convention and asking for any information related to the Clinton campaign. As WikiLeaks parceled tens of thousands of his emails across the month of October, media coverage kept pace. No detail was too small, it seemed. It is hard to say whether WikiLeaks timed the Podesta leaks to bury the other stories that were less favorable to Trump.
Time was of the essence, the message said, because the damaging material had to leak before Hillary Clinton could win over Bernie Sanders supporters in her run toward the general election. On July 22, just three days before the Democratic convention that would officially nominate Hillary Clinton, WikiLeaks posted the largest and most significant trove of DNC files.
This batch included almost twenty thousand copies of emails stolen by the GRU hackers. The most damaging emails were the ones that showed some staffers at the DNC, which is not supposed to take sides in intraparty contests, clearly supporting Clinton and not Sanders in the presidential primaries.
But the game-changer for data journalism happened in spring , beginning with one spreadsheet: 92, rows of data, each one containing a detailed breakdown of a military event in Afghanistan. This was the WikiLeaks war logs.
Part one, that is. There were to be two more episodes to follow: Iraq and the cables. News organizations are all about geography—and proximity to the news desk. Before WikiLeaks , we were placed on a different floor, with graphics. Since WikiLeaks , we have sat on the same floor, next to the newsdesk. In the central maps one could clearly see the overwhelming victory of Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner by 54 percent of the vote, broken up by color saturation. It also served to help users understand specific cases where local candidates had landslide victories in the provinces.
For the COINS spending data, we had specialist reporters at the Guardian working to give their views about the data when it was released by the UK government. WikiLeaks was also obviously very big, with lots of stories about Iraq and Afghanistan.
The riots were also pretty big, with over k hits in two days. But it is not just about the short term hits: it is also about being a reliable source of useful information. We are Legion , WikiLeaks , zero day. State Department cables. EveryDNS cited the ongoing denial-of-service attacks against WikiLeaks as the reason for its cessation of services, but most suspect the U. Another American hosting company, Amazon, also dropped WikiLeaks as a customer.
However, nowhere does the letter, sent directly to WikiLeaks , suggest the organization itself was breaking U. One of them, Palantir — a company whose origins lie in the PayPal fraud detection unit and whose founders were given early advice by Poindexter — has become a darling of the defence and intelligence community, but a bit of an outcast among civil libertarians.
In February , an Anonymous operation breached the networks of the security company HBGary, and then publicly disclosed plans they had uncovered involving HBGary, the Bank of America, Palantir, and others to attack WikiLeaks servers, and spread misinformation about Wikileaks supporters, including the journalist Glen Greenwald. Full disclosure: In , Palantir donated a version of their analytical platform to the Citizen Lab, and we employed it only as a minor research tool during the GhostNet and Shadows investigations.
Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald. This also could have been some sort of plot by the government to entrap us into collaborating with a criminal leak. Or perhaps it had come from someone who sought to damage our credibility by passing on fraudulent documents to publish. We discussed all these possibilities. The report ironically leaked to WikiLeaks discussed the possibility of passing on fraudulent documents. If WikiLeaks published them as authentic, it would suffer a serious blow to its credibility.
Laura and I were aware of all the pitfalls but we discounted them, relying instead on our intuition. Something intangible yet powerful about those emails convinced us that their author was genuine. He wrote out of a belief in the dangers of government secrecy and pervasive spying; I instinctively recognized his political passion. When WikiLeaks began publishing classified documents related to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and especially diplomatic cables, calls for the prosecution of WikiLeaks were led by American journalists themselves, which was in itself astounding behavior.
The very institution ostensibly devoted to bringing transparency to the actions of the powerful not only denounced but attempted to criminalize one of the most significant acts of transparency in many years. What WikiLeaks did—receiving classified information from a source within the government and then revealing it to the world—is essentially what media organizations do all the time.
I had expected the American media to direct its hostility toward me, especially as we continued to publish documents and the unprecedented scope of the leak began to be clear. Its public editor, Margaret Sullivan, noted that the Times might want to take a look in the mirror if its editors wanted to understand why sources revealing major national security stories, like Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden, did not feel safe or motivated to bring them their information.
A textile industry consultant corroborates the estimated fee. Nasir El-Rufai, interview with author, Abuja, April The Monuc team recorded that Anvil accepted that the army used its vehicles but denied that they were used to transport loot or corpses, and that it admitted paying some of the soldiers. Bill Turner, e-mail exchange with author, October Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks. See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems.
The cable mentions that at least thirty Iranian front companies had been established for procurement. See also wikileaks. Amos Yadlin made the comments to Congressman Robert Wexler. See wikileaks. The NIE had other repercussions. The video precipitated outcries from across the globe and intense coverage in the foreign press.
In December , WikiLeaks sent shock waves through governments around the globe when it posted 6, secret U. In Tunisia, anti-regime activists read with interest U. Republican congressman Peter King called for WikiLeaks to be designated a foreign terrorist organization and for Assange to be criminally prosecuted. Daniel Ellsberg, who struck his own blow for openness during the Vietnam War by leaking the infamous Pentagon Papers to the New York Times, defended Assange in precisely these terms.
If you look at polls, everyone hates Congress, they hate the Democrats, they hate the Republicans even more, they hate big business; they hate banks and they distrust scientists, so why should we believe what these pointy-headed elitists are telling us? Rather than wanting to use leaks as a means of destroying institutions from the inside, he told interviewer David Frost he was trying to save them from themselves.
Among the few who saw the threat clearly was computer scientist Jaron Lanier, who, in , warned the public of a new danger: WikiLeaks. At the time, free speech advocates were hailing WikiLeaks , and its founder, Julian Assange, as defenders of government transparency. Their lionization of the leaker organization was largely due to frustration with the criminal impunity of the Bush administration.
In February , soldier Chelsea Manning exposed war crimes by sending classified documents to WikiLeaks , which WikiLeaks then published online. The emphasis on civilian victims led human rights advocates to believe that WikiLeaks would prove a formidable opponent for autocratic regimes.
But after WikiLeaks dropped hacked documents from the US State Department in November, Lanier predicted the opposite—that WikiLeaks would ultimately ally with dictators and that social media networks would abet them: The WikiLeaks method punishes a nation—or any human undertaking—that falls short of absolute, total transparency, which is all human undertakings, but perversely rewards an absolute lack of transparency.
If the political world becomes a mirror of the Internet as we know it today, then the world will be restructured around opaque, digitally delineated power centers surrounded by a sea of chaotic, underachieving openness. WikiLeaks is one prototype of a digital power center, but others include hedge funds and social networking sites. This is the world we are headed to, it seems, since people are unable to resist becoming organized according to the digital architectures that connect us.
The amazing thing about Tails is that it is designed from the ground up for privacy, so there are no settings to jiggle or opt-outs required. Using Tails was my only and best glimpse into an alternate universe where privacy could be the default. At his military court proceedings, Bradley Manning, the U. Army private who leaked documents to WikiLeaks , described how he connected with WikiLeaks using Tor and Jabber for encrypted chats. Short, simple passwords, such as dictionary words, have very low entropy because they can easily be guessed.
Longer passwords that contain many types of symbols, letters, and numbers often have larger entropy because it takes more guesses to figure them out. It is fifty-eight characters long, with very few symbols, and easy to remember. Of course, the reason we know his password is that the Guardian newspaper published it in a book about WikiLeaks.
Entropy is frustratingly difficult to estimate. A long password can have low entropy if it is comprised of simple words and easy grammar. I started to become obsessed with measuring the entropy of the passwords I had created. A FEW MONTHS earlier the big concern plaguing the Bitcoin forum was how to attract new users, but now the problem was how to deal with the influx of new users, their potentially malicious behavior, and their competing interests.
In November, WikiLeaks , the organization founded by a regular participant in the old Cypherpunk movement, Julian Assange, released a vast trove of confidential American diplomatic documents that revealed previously secret operations around the world. The large credit card companies and PayPal came under immediate political pressure to cut off donations to WikiLeaks , which they did in early December, in what became known as the WikiLeaks blockade.
This move pointed to the potentially troubling nexus between the financial industry and the government. The financial industry seemed to provide politicians with an extralegal way to crack down on dissent. The WikiLeaks blockade went to the core of some of the concerns that had motivated the original Cypherpunks. Bitcoin, in turn, seemed to have the potential to counteract the problem. Each person on the network controlled his or her coins with his or her private key. If WikiLeaks had requested Bitcoins then they would have received their donations without a second thought.
Here was a broader philosophical issue that could attract a wider audience, and the forums were full of new members who had been drawn in by the attention. This kicked off a vigorous debate on the forum. A number of programmers worried that the Bitcoin network was not ready for all the traffic—and government scrutiny—that might come if it started to be used for controversial donations. A decade earlier, though, Gutseriev was down and seemingly out. That same year, however, he sought to regain his position by arranging for three busloads of armed guards to take over its Moscow offices.
They withdrew after occupying the building for several days, according to an account in the Russian press. But a US diplomatic cable written in and released by WikiLeaks pointed to another reason for the rapprochement: the discovery of massive extractable resources, including gold, bauxite, and other minerals, plus potentially large reserves of oil and gas.
Doing business in Cambodia is not easy, though. Kazakhstan sits at the heart of the Caspian Sea region, in Central Asia, and the WikiLeaks cables paint the same rough portrait of other energy-rich nations of the region. Instead, the administration did something else entirely: it launched an all-out war on WikiLeaks itself. Numerous reports quickly surfaced that the Obama DOJ was actively attempting to indict WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, an Australian citizen, under the Espionage Act of —which, if successful, would be the first time in U.
Meanwhile, a very sophisticated cyberattack temporarily drove WikiLeaks offline. Throughout , WikiLeaks published thousands of documents relating to U. Needless to say, none of these revelations resulted in any criminal investigations from the Obama administration. In December, WikiLeaks released another trove of information: numerous diplomatic cables that had been sent from U. Amazon Web Services , barriers to entry , Berlin Wall , Brian Krebs , centralized clearinghouse , clean water , computer age , crowdsourcing , data acquisition , don't be evil , Edward Snowden , failed state , Firefox , John Markoff , Julian Assange , mutually assured destruction , peer-to-peer , Silicon Valley , Silicon Valley startup , Skype , Stuxnet , undersea cable , uranium enrichment , WikiLeaks , zero day.
He suggested submitting fake documents to WikiLeaks in hopes that the site would publish them and then be discredited. Team Themis never had the chance to launch its espionage and propaganda campaign. Though Team Themis failed, the US government has turned to other private cyber sleuths to go after WikiLeaks and help with other investigations.
Tiversa, a Pittsburgh-based company, grabbed headlines in when it accused WikiLeaks of using peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, like those used to swap music downloads, to obtain classified US military documents. It had put together a trio of small tech companies to run a kind of cyber propaganda operation against opponents of the US Chamber of Commerce, the leading business lobbyist in Washington.
But — years later — Assange, solitary and reclusive, intervened in the US presidential election in ways that troubled many. Clinton had been seven points ahead of Donald Trump at the beginning of October. That may or may not have been true. The claim is that WikiLeaks was essentially laundering information that might have been hacked by Russian intelligence with the purpose of destabilising the election of a foreign power. It would be unconscionable for WikiLeaks to withhold such an archive from the public during an election.
This was a lesson which was lost on the British authorities — up to, and including, the subsequent Snowden reporting. We published. The sky did not fall in. The opponents of publication made repeated assertions of the harm caused by the release. Some years later, I was sitting with a senior intelligence figure as he predicted grave consequences of the Snowden revelations. He waved his hand dismissively. WikiLeaks was insignificant. The relationship with Assange did not survive — quite the opposite.
Big sites need hosting, and that costs money. WikiLeaks was the target of this in , with US credit card processors cutting off all donations to the site. Despite not getting money from US contributors, WikiLeaks survived and got good press from being the victim of clearly abusive conduct by the US government and financial industry.
So attacking a site will often just make it stronger. The very fact that authorities target a leaks site promotes its accuracy and importance. It is also technically hard to sustain. In , Bank of America hired three firms to attack Wikileaks. Emails and documents uncovered in the hack outline several proposed attacks on WikiLeaks : Feed the fuel between the feuding groups. There are several strategies, as far as I can see.
The most obvious and widely used is to attack any website that acts as a broker for leaks. WikiLeaks drew a massive amount of fire and fury for declaring its mission to be a broker for leaks, in , leading to its founder Julian Assange infamously holed up in the Ecuadorian embassy in London, with Hollywood painting him in as a glory-seeking egomaniac.
Threaten the powers that be, and you will pay. While it can be tricky to arrest and disappear a public figure, it is trivial to launch a "distributed denial of service attack," or DDoS, on any troublesome website. One simply tells hundreds of thousands of slave PCs to request the main page of the website, say wikileaks. The simultaneous volume of demand overwhelms the server so that real users can't access it.
Run a media campaign to push the radical and reckless nature of WikiLeaks activities. Sustain pressure. Does nothing for the fanatics, but creates concern and doubt among moderates. Search for leaks. Use social media to profile and identify risky behavior of employees. Once a leak is out and attacks on the website that released the information are shown to be useless, the next step is to attack the motives, sanity, and loyalty of the leaker.
When there is a leak, the American press when the leak concerns American secrets focuses on the messenger and his motives, rather than the message. This isn't necessarily a conspiracy as much as how US media, and indeed much of US society, prefers style over substance. The hackers sent the news site Gawker the Trump opposition research document, and it published a story on the file that received half a million clicks, robbing the Democrats of the ability to time the release of their Trump dirt.
The previous March, Podesta had fallen prey to a basic phishing email, directing him to a fake Gmail site that asked for his username and password, which he handed over. The site, of course, was a Fancy Bear trap.
WikiLeaks would trickle out its resulting stash of Clinton campaign kompromat for weeks to come. The revelations included eighty pages of closely guarded speeches Clinton had given to private Wall Street audiences. It is possible that blockchain mechanisms might be the most efficient and equitable models for administering all transnational public goods, particularly due to their participative, democratic, and distributed nature.
A notable case in which jurisdictional nation-state entities were able to effect centralized and biased control is WikiLeaks. In the Edward Snowden whistle-blowing case in , individuals were trying to make financial contributions in support of the WikiLeaks organization but, strongarmed by centralized government agendas, credit card payment networks and PayPal, refused to accept such contributions, and WikiLeaks was effectively embargoed.
The Electronic Freedom Foundation EFF , a nonprofit organization that supports personal freedoms, and other related organizations are similarly located in jurisdictional locations at present, which could always mean the operation of curtailed agendas if authorities were to exercise influence over the organization and individuals involved. YouTube, August 23, Currency, Contracts, and Applications beyond Financial Markets The potential benefits of the blockchain are more than just economic—they extend into political, humanitarian, social, and scientific domains—and the technological capacity of the blockchain is already being harnessed by specific groups to address real-world problems.
For example, to counter repressive political regimes, blockchain technology can be used to enact in a decentralized cloud functions that previously needed administration by jurisdictionally bound organizations. This is obviously useful for organizations like WikiLeaks where national governments prevented credit card processors from accepting donations in the sensitive Edward Snowden situation as well as organizations that are transnational in scope and neutral in political outlook, like Internet standards group ICANN and DNS services.
Beyond these situations in which a public interest must transcend governmental power structures, other industry sectors and classes can be freed from skewed regulatory and licensing schemes subject to the hierarchical power structures and influence of strongly backed special interest groups on governments, enabling new disintermediated business models.
But worse yet, he fueled our suspicions that at a minimum he was perfectly comfortable with what was clearly Russian interference in the election. So the next level of the plan kicked in: activating WikiLeaks. The first WikiLeaks dump was massive: 44, emails, more than 17, attachments. And not coincidentally, the deluge started just days after our interview with Trump, and right before the start of the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia. The most politically potent of the emails made clear that the DNC leadership was doing whatever it could to make sure Hillary Clinton got the nomination and Bernie Sanders did not.
Jesus Christ. Those people should be shot in the balls. Most important, the NSA has never had to account for the fact that it ignored so many warnings about its well-documented vulnerabilities to a new era of insider threats.
The warnings had been quite public. Only three years before the Snowden breach, an army private now known as Chelsea Manning had gotten away with essentially the same thing in Iraq—downloading hundreds of thousands of military videos and State Department cables and handing them off to WikiLeaks. Shortly after the Snowden fiasco, the agency announced new safeguards: No longer would systems administrators with access to vast databases be able to download documents by themselves. Instead of taking practical steps toward reducing the nightmarish threat of nuclear weapons proliferation in Iran or elsewhere, the United States is moving to reinforce control of the vital Middle Eastern oil-producing regions, by violence if other means do not succeed.
The War in Afghanistan: Echoes of Vietnam August 1, The War Logs—a six-year archive of classified military documents about the war in Afghanistan, released on the Internet by the organization WikiLeaks —documents a grim struggle becoming grimmer, from the U.
And for the Afghans, a mounting horror. Last month [July ] came the fiasco of General Stanley A. McChrystal, forced to retire as commander of U. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that U. Technology companies had become deeply enmeshed in American power. During the Tunisian uprising, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange released a series of incriminating cables detailing embezzlement and nepotism by the Ben Ali oligarchy, information that further fueled the revolt.
When the government tried to block access to the cables, Operation Tunisia used the Twitter hashtag OpTunisia to inform Tunisians about backdoor ways to access the WikiLeaks cables and protect themselves online. Anonymous also managed to hack and take down high-profile Tunisian governmental websites, including those of the stock exchange, the government Internet Agency, the Office of the President and Prime Minister, the Ministry of Industry, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Abbas contacted YouTube directly to reinstate the videos, but to no avail. In September , Abbas was one of thirty-five activists, including the founders of the 6th of April Facebook page, named in a complaint to the Egyptian public prosecutor. He was called in for questioning on suspicion of treason and working with a foreign government.
This memo details meetings with Egyptian activists from the blogosphere, civil society, and the opposition press. At the time of writing, the fate of those activists remains unclear. What is certain is that activists often risk their own security, credibility, and public standing when they are on record as working with the US government. Their contact with the US government can range from very superficial encounters, like attending a reception or receiving training from a third party funded by USAID, to more suspect activities like participating in closed-door briefings with US officials.
The Taliban, said Lavoy, were making significant gains: U. The Richard M. Joining them were senior executives of various defense corporations: Recollection of attendees at dinner. In reality the driver of the car: Ibid.
Defense Secretary Leon Panetta echoed the sentiment: U. Back then, it operated in many respects like a traditional publisher, albeit one that was radically skeptical of state power. This switch to a policy of total transparency meant that publishing with WikiLeaks would not meet my needs. Whenever I thought about contacting the Times, I found myself hesitating. His impotent threats, like so many of those Anonymous has targeted, were sheepishly removed a short time later after his site was brought down again.
In December , Amazon, Paypal, Bank of America, PostFinance, MasterCard, and Visa decided to stop processing donations for the global news leak network WikiLeaks , which had recently caused global controversy by posting sensitive internal documents.
These payment-processing sites had bowed to political pressure, refusing to work with WikiLeaks. In retaliation, Anonymous launched DDoS attacks against several of these companies, successfully bringing down the websites for MasterCard and Visa. A year-old boy from the Netherlands was arrested in relation to the attack, and the FBI is probably still investigating. CBS News. Last modified January 5, Doctorow, Cory. Last modified May 10, Emmett, Laura. Last modified May 3, Encyclopedia Dramatica.
Fark post. Last modified June 11, Furukawa, Hideki. Last modified October 22, Greenberg, Andy. Last modified January 28, Grossman, Wendy M. December Harold C. Filed January 19, Haughey, Matt. The author asked McCormick but he declined to clarify conversed informally: Zaslavskiy and Lough say they spoke to each other in Russian, using the formal mode.
The author asked McCormick, who confirmed he does not speak Russian, the basis of his assertion to the contrary. This conversation is recorded in a cable subsequently published by WikiLeaks wikileaks. He asked whether the cable accurately reflected what McCormick told the diplomats. New York Times, May 28, Market speculators pressurize fragile nations such as Greece, whose citizens are forced to survive with fewer public services. Resistance to this bitter medicine is only one reason that large swathes of Latin America have become more independent since the s.
The mass privatization that results—a central plank of US foreign policy—guarantees corruption in autocracies. In it admitted that it had no idea how many people had been forced off their lands around the world due to its resettlement policies.
The story barely made the news and no heads rolled. One Californian town, Maywood, took the privatization memo a bit too seriously. Today, there are 4 million US citizens who hold Top Secret security clearance, of whom , are contractors. It is nothing less than a privatized, modern-day Stasi. This view is only bolstered by WikiLeaks documents, released in , that uncovered a large number of previously unreported murders committed by privatized security and intelligence forces in the Afghan and Iraq conflict zones.
Wilson There is much more to be hoped for in an excess of information or of weapons than in the restriction of information or arms control. The hotel opened directly onto Markham Street and the walking crowds on the Old Statehouse plaza. I lured any who might listen to this marvelous set piece with the grandest exhortations—Would you be remembered? At one of these twilight salons sat Chris Hancock, an old classmate of mine, his tangled black hair brushed from his face.
He had brought a friend. The copies were already distributed. The damage sits waiting to be done. Sure, make the guns with a printer, I thought. But if we could do it, anyone could. It was in publishing. In one moment it solidified for me: we could produce a gun with the most widely available 3D printing technology and then freely distribute the plans over the Internet. Go for the brass ring of system failure. Ben had given us WikiLeaks for guns.
I like what it suggests. There are many other examples of how the mobile, social internet is impacting banks such as the Wikileaks and Anonymous attacks on PayPal, Visa and MasterCard. The leaks included films of American bombings in Iraq that killed two Reuters journalists, something the US Government had denied happening, and so the government were publicly shamed and embarrassed and used their influence on PayPal, Visa and MasterCard to stop funding for the Wikileaks services.
The real shock was the reaction of Wikileaks supporters to this action however. The problem is that authorities do not like open source P2P services like BitTorrent and Wikileaks as it undermines traditional forms of commerce as the currency can be used for both good and bad things.
In fact, most of the association of Bitcoins is with crime, according to government authorities, being used for drugs and terrorism. This is not actually the case as Bitcoin does not fuel crime, just as the internet does not fuel crime. That leaves around exabytes that has some value. Some of this is important but not critical, and some worthwhile but not that important.
Using the third to two-thirds dynamic, this would mean that around exabytes is important and 70 exabytes critical. It is here that banks can make their data vault offer. Secure data with the bank and pay for that security. If you use encryption: I do not know whether this includes all encrypted SSL sessions. Those who do the reporting: The deputizing of citizens to report on each other is toxic to society. In mid-June, Guccifer 2. I found out about this from a former colleague who was still with the firm and thought everything was getting out of hand.
As the Democrats tried to get their convention back on track, Donald Trump lobbed another metaphorical grenade at the party. We give the Republicans a few minutes to show up. They never do. Congress about Cambridge Analytica, a military contractor and psychological warfare firm where I used to work, and a complex web involving Facebook, Russia, WikiLeaks , the Trump campaign, and the Brexit referendum.
Schiff leads the questioning. A former federal prosecutor, he is sharp and precise with his lines of inquiry, and he wastes no time getting to the heart of the matter. Did the data used by Cambridge Analytica ever get into the hands of potential Russian agents? Do you believe there was a nexus of Russian state-sponsored activity in London during the presidential election and Brexit campaigns?
Was there communication between Cambridge Analytica and WikiLeaks? Facebook is no longer just a company, I told them. Reporting a book like this involves a lot of travel on a tiny budget, so copious thanks are due to Amna Saleem, Elena Egawhary, Megan Carpentier, Laurence Dodds, Nicky Woolf and Tess McCormick for providing places for me to stay, report or write from — and often good company too — during the work on the book. On WikiLeaks , David Leigh and Luke Harding were a pleasure to work with and their book is a valuable reminder of the time.
Bamford, J. Bartlett, J. Beckett, C. Blum, A. Greenwald, G. Harding, L. Leigh, D. Miller, C. Susskind, J. Wu, T. For a long time, you could convince yourself it was all the real deal. Such was the mood towards the internet that the exultant opening ceremony to the London Olympics culminated in a seventeen-minute dance sequence celebrating Tim Berners-Lee for creating the World Wide Web and giving it to the world for free. The uniform reaction from American politicians on both the left and the right was one of outrage at both Wikileaks and its sources.
Vice President Biden called Wikileaks founder Julian Assange a terrorist and promised that the Justice Department would be looking for ways to prosecute him. Accessed February 13, Collateral Murder video , www. Accessed March 10, Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize.
New York: Viking Penguin. Wilson, Edward O. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 25th anniversary ed. Wilson, James Q. Wing, Nick. Wingo, Ajume. Veil Politics in Liberal Democratic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. To work, this strategy would probably require very severe penalties, such as prison time, for even minor lapses. Though this might occur in a society populated by economists, no other society would consider, for example, sending a legislator to prison for failing to read a bill before voting on it.
On Huckabee, see Wing See Caplan b, Chapters 1, for criticism of the theory. Key to this project were the ten Macy conferences held between and , which developed ideas around informational systems and a universal theory of regulation and control that would be applicable to humans as well as to machines, to economic systems as well as to behavior.
David M. Algorithms are numeric combinations that inscribe in themselves operational functions, formatting and performing the real developments of the human world. This is a key point that is highlighted in this book. Hacking, free software, WikiLeaks.
From this point of view, Speaking Code is a timely intervention. It again raises the question of pragmatics previously debated by authors like J. Julian [Assange] is not a U. He was not operating on U. The Pentagon Papers conversation took place entirely within the national matrix, and the WikiLeaks conversation took place outside of it. Networks good; hierarchies bad. Global good; local bad. But this, of course, is true only if one assumes that platforms like PayPal operate in an absolute power vacuum, completely immune to pressures that countries, institutions, and hierarchies might exert on those engaged in the transactions as well as on PayPal itself.
PayPal may have obviated the theoretical need for banks—but its investors still need a bank to cash their checks from PayPal, so no technoescape actually takes place. Likewise, as of July , PayPal had revised how it deals with file-sharing sites, requiring any sites that want to use PayPal to solicit membership fees from users to ensure that they host no illegal files. A conversation about the national interest between the transglobal network that is was?
WikiLeaks and the US government actually did take place. Assange himself often complains that the US government thwarted his highly mobile, distributed, and transnational network, not least because Washington can target—not directly but through rhetoric—the very intermediaries, from credit card companies to technology providers, that enable such networks.
Another year during which Mossfon apparently broke a US embargo. This makes our mountain of data the largest leak in the history of journalism. Larger than Offshore Secrets. By way of comparison, the diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks amounted to 1. Also, it is very hard to imagine gigabytes. Well, let us tell you: gigabytes represent almost a million emails and several million pages of secret documents.
WikiLeaks was different. The coordinators of that whistle-blowing website simply posted data on the Internet without any journalists filtering the information. That was the basic idea — and not a bad one at that. You need to understand how dangerous and sensitive some of this information is.
Rami and Bashar played together when they were young, and today they are close allies — one the head of state, the other the businessman on whose money and connections Assad can count at all times. But after there were no explosive revelations, it seemed that this had been done to affect voter perception. I looked back at it. Her theory and inference that I could be Guccifer 2. Her allegations against me had real collateral damage: I was subpoenaed by Mueller the next day, which she then printed nine months later, conveniently leaving out the date and touting it as though it had just happened, further confusing the world and obfuscating the truth.
While Cambridge, she allowed, had never officially worked for Lukoil—Wylie had a copy of that proposal, which I myself had seen in my early days at SCL—Cadwalladr wanted to tie it all together, despite having no causal evidence. Carole wanted so desperately to find a smoking gun that she blew smoke everywhere, with larger-than-life characters such as Chris Wylie and villainous companies such as Cambridge Analytica, which she described as deploying psyops and operating much like MI6.
Albert Einstein , anti-communist , Ayatollah Khomeini , bank run , banking crisis , Bretton Woods , central bank independence , centralized clearinghouse , centre right , credit crunch , dividend-yielding stocks , European colonialism , forensic accounting , God and Mammon , Index librorum prohibitorum , Kickstarter , liberation theology , medical malpractice , Murano, Venice glass , offshore financial centre , oil shock , operation paperclip , rent control , Ronald Reagan , Silicon Valley , WikiLeaks , Yom Kippur War.
Allen Jr. It was about fears the Pope might reach out to the Vietcong. The Tyranny of Metrics by Jerry Z. There are increasing pressures to make those publicly available as well: whether through legal means such as Freedom of Information Act requests; or congressional demands, as in the case of congressional committees demanding the email correspondence of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in the case of the Benghazi investigations; or illegal means such as the electronic theft and dissemination of internal government documents by organizations such as Wikileaks.
Making internal deliberations open to public disclosure—that is, transparent—is counterproductive, Sunstein argues, since if government officials know that all of their ideas and positions may be made public, it inhibits openness, candor, and trust in communications. The predictable result will be for government officials to commit ever less information to writing, either in print or in the form of emails.
But that decreases the opportunity to carefully lay out positions. Thus transparency of inputs becomes the enemy of good government. In , Bradley Manning, an intelligence analyst in the American Army, took it upon himself to disclose hundreds of thousands of sensitive military and State Department documents through WikiLeaks.
More importantly, the revelations made it more difficult for American diplomats to acquire human intelligence in the future, since the confidentiality of conversations could not be relied upon. Not to worry, though: while armed drones were reportedly not yet based in Ethiopia, the Washington Post and Wall Street Journal reported in the fall of that the US was operating unmanned aircraft at a base in the island nation of Seychelles, an archipelago located off the coast of East Africa, and was considering weaponizing them.
But classified US diplomatic cables showed that the plan was also to conduct counterterrorism missions over Somalia, about eight hundred miles to the northwest. At first, they consented privately but made public condemnations. Whatever its success as a currency, Bitcoin has proved incredibly useful for spreading these views, to some extent shorn of the marks of their political origins, but no less useful for the powerful corporate interests who benefit from other aspects of rightist discourse.
Although private companies certainly have a right to select which transactions to process or not, the political environment produced less than a fair and objective decision. It was coordinated pressure exerted in a politicized climate by the U.
Fortunately, there is way around this and other financial blockades with a global payment method immune to political pressure and monetary censorship. Matonis b Bitcoin made it possible for individuals to donate to WikiLeaks despite it being a violation of U. Malmo, Christopher. Marx, Jared Paul. Matonis, Jon. Maurer, Bill, Taylor C. Nelms, and Lana Swartz. May, Timothy C. Meiklejohn, Sarah, and Claudio Orlandi.
When Haiti passed a law in to raise the minimum wage from 24 to 61 cents an hour, US corporations like Levi Strauss and Hanes were furious. These corporations pay workers in Haiti, the poorest country in the western hemisphere, which is still struggling to recover from a devastating earthquake, extremely low wages to sew clothes in their sweatshops.
The result? A new minimum wage of 31 cents an hour. This may never have been revealed had it not been released in a Wikileaks cable, demonstrating that the US government acts in secrecy. The justification for secrecy is usually national security interest, but it would be hard for anyone to place this in such a category.
The American people were not to be informed of how their elected officials were interfering in a desperately poor country in their name. Considering the current states of both countries, the question must be asked: are we insane? Unless this madness is stopped, tragedies like the following will continue to occur: on 15th March , during a house raid in Iraq by US forces, a family and their children were handcuffed and then summarily executed with shots to the head.
This dangerous creature will not go down easily. It has all the money and owns most of the media and a large number of politicians. Market Share. See market share leaders. Nice To Haves. Age Newest 20 Months Much more recent. High dynamic range lighting Teapot fps fps Better reflection handling.
Parallax occlusion mapping Stones fps fps Better texture detail. Force Splatted Flocking Swarm fps fps Much faster complex splatting. Average Bench User Builds. Systems with these GPUs. Group Test Results Best user rated - User sentiment trumps benchmarks for this comparison. Best value for money - Value for money is based on real world performance. Fastest real world speed - Real World Speed measures performance for typical consumers.
Bench your build Size up your PC in less than a minute. Unfortunately there are currently no games which can take advantage of these new capabilities. The only has 8GB of RAM which is fine today but will likely haunt any early adopters that plan to keep the card for more than two years. Render target array GShader Sphere fps Much faster multi rendering. Age Newest 24 Months 20 Months More recent.
The number of benchmark samples for this model as a percentage of all 33, GPUs tested. Good but needs more,i know. Being the cheapest RTX card, this GPU offer one of the best value for performance while giving you enough workhorse to play Ray-traced games at high or ultra provided if you're playing it at p.
Been running the MSI Gaming Z and it has crushed every game I've thrown at it even with RTX set to high and the rest to ultra Metro Exodus so if you're looking for an upgrade but don't want to spend too much money I highly recommend this card. Even better value than thestill no competition from the other side. Would be capable of raytracing at p but has to enable DLSS or reduce setting to achieve optimal framerates.
Decent GPU. If you're looking to purchase, save a few more bucks and get an RTX Amazing card, even without the RTX performance capabilities it is a good improvement over competing older generation cards. Very powerfull and I also have enough FPS to play with ray-tracing activated! At this price to be considered new entry level to high-tier. Best price to performance this gen. Founders Edition seems good but hard to do maintenance on. I would recommend an aftermarket from Evga, Zotac, Gigabyte or Asus not in that order specifically.
I think its one of the best price per performance gpu's currently in the market right now. So I went with it and glad I did. Most people instantly go for the familiar while the RTX is much better and deserves a better chance. After using a forever this card has a massive difference in quality obviouslyand was well worth the upgrade, the only thing holding this card back from a 5 star would be because of how much ray tracing effects it's performance. It is truly the best gpu on the market for someone who has a budget!!
See how consistently different GPUs perform with varying real world conditions. The charts also illustrate overall performance, popularity and rank. Average Bench: Based onuser benchmarks. This is an excellent result which ranks the Nvidia RTX near the top of the comparison list. Strengths Avg. Locally-deformable PRT Bat fps. NBody particle system Galaxy fps. Age Newest 15 Months More recent. High dynamic range lighting Teapot fps Slightly better reflection handling.
Parallax occlusion mapping Stones fps Better texture detail. Force Splatted Flocking Swarm fps Faster complex splatting. How it works - Download and run UserBenchMark. Frequently Asked Questions. By then we had received our review samples but since we were technically already late, rather than rush in we decided to take our time and prove an extremely in-depth benchmark comparison.
Today we have a 36 game benchmark with over a dozen different GPUs. You will also find included a number of big performance breakdowns at the end of the article, along with the usual cost per frame stuff. Both are great looking boards, but since the Gigabyte card arrived first that's what we used for all the testing. Later on we'll look into providing better detail about thermals and other elements that are reserved for individual graphics card reviews as those will vary from one model to the next.
RT cores have also been lowered from 36 to Getting on with the benchmark results, out of the 36 games tested we'll discuss individually the most noteworthy ones and then jump into our breakdown analysis with all the data. To kickstart things off we have Shadow of the Tomb Raider. Here the RTX was good for 63 fps on average using the highest in-game quality preset.
Using the highest quality preset we saw an average of 54 fps and this meant the was barely any slower than Vega 64 and the GTX Moving on we have Just Cause 4. If you enjoy our content, please consider subscribing User Comments: 54 Got something to say? Post a comment. Add your comment to this article You need to be a member to leave a comment. Join thousands of tech enthusiasts and participate. TechSpot Account Sign up for freeit takes 30 seconds. Already have an account? Login now.
BluesTV - Download the app here. Where to eat at St. There is now a single player at the top of the Open Championship Leaderboard with Jordan Spieth three shots clear after another faultless round at The Open My final tips of the week will be in the betting without Spieth market. To have a look at how he is doing so far this season check out our golf betting tips homepage.
Has a low round in him and not going to get better odds on him now. Is one under par and very much in the hunt. I am ecstatic that I can now get on him as I thought the opportunity had passed. He is level par, got a good chance to do well even if it is just at each way.
Knows his way around a links course and will have incredible home support as he comes from Southport. He is 9th in the world won the BMW PGA Championship a month ago and has four top tens this year in total, we also know he can win on links. The weather is set to be pretty mixed with showers and strong winds, the trickier the conditions the better his chances I feel.
He still very much has the game to compete and at this price he has a great each way chance.
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