The Lake Iamonia basin appears to mark the northern extent of the regions lakes. If co-occurrence of favored horticultural soils with aquatic resources of lakes is the hallmark of Mississippian adaptations throughout the Southeast, then the Lake Iamonia basin should mark the northern limits of Apalachee. Although documentary evidence is lacking, there are limited archaeological data that support this hypothesis Tesar ; Calvin Jones, personal communication The concept of rivers as boundaries also has implications for understanding the internal structure of Apalachee.
From Sotos time to the end of the Mission period, Ivitachuco and Anhayca, located at the provinces eastern and western extremes, were Apalachees two most important towns. Spanish documents often disagree as to which towns chief was the most important Hann Claudine Payne observed that the distribution of Ft. Walton mound sites may indicate this eastern-western political subdivision existed centuries prior to Spanish contact.
I suggest these political and observations may have a basis in regional ecology. Near the center of the province, the St. Marks River valley effectively divides Apalachees uplands which include its most favorable farming soils into two large territories. It is possible that the eastern-western political subdivision of Apalachee is related to this physical separation of upland soils by the St.
Marks River valley. The existence of both eastern and western uplands also helps explain aspects of the seventeenth century road that Shapiro Rivers as Centers, Rivers as Boundaries 11 connected Apalachee missions with one another. Beginning at the Aucilla River and continuing west, the mission road followed close to the Cody Scarp until it reached the St.
Marks Valley. The St. Marks Valley probably did not form a complete barrier to travel, but its swampy terrain could be avoided by skirting around the drainage to the north. The Patale mission was located at the very headwaters of the St. Marks River drainage, and from here the mission road split into a northern and southern circuit from which missions in the western highlands of Apalachee could be reached Figure 3. On the basis of historic documents John Hann has characterized Patale as a crossroads for travel within the province and as an entrepot for contact with other Indian groups north of Apalachee Hann This fits well with Patales geographic position at the top of the drainage which divides Apalachees uplands into eastern and western segments.
Florida Variations on a Mississippian Theme The rivers-as-centers, rivers-as-boundaries distinction is a useful tool for understanding human ecology at several scales. In the broadest sense, there is a pattern of riverine po litical boundaries that can be understood with reference to the physiography of Florida rivers. At a finer scale, it enhances our understanding of a single province. There is an ecological ba sis not only for Apalachees boundaries, but perhaps even for a political subdivision within the province which is hinted at by historic documents and by the distribution of mound sites.
Finally, I have speculated about the environmental basis for the role of a single Apalachee mission site as a junction along the seventeenth century mission road. I do not wish to give the impression that human ecology of Florida chiefdoms is monolithic. The ostensibly non-horticul- tural Calusa of southwestern Florida provide an excellent ex ample of variability among Florida chiefdoms.
Even in northern Florida, there are important exceptions to the rivers-as-boundar ies model. First, unique among Florida rivers, the Apalachicola is a large alluvial river with its origins in the Georgia Piedmont. There is no reason to expect a departure from the classic mod el of Mississippian settlement here, and accordingly, the upper Apalachicola valley was well populated during Mississippian times Scarry ; White Other important variations may reflect ecological vari ability among Floridas non-alluvial streams.
For example, black water rivers, which derive mostly from tannic swamps, are relatively impoverished in terms of organic carrying ca pacity. This is a combined result of their high acidity, the na ture of their watershed soils, and low primary productivity Femald and Patton Such rivers include portions of the Suwannee, Santa Fe, and Aucilla, all of which form pro vincial boundaries.
By contrast, there are clear Florida rivers that receive most of their flow directly from springs. These allow luxuriant growth of aquatic plants that provide import ant habitat for animal species. When spring-fed rivers empty directly into estuaries, they may serve as thermal refugia for salt-water species Femald and Patton Such rivers have extremely rich aquatic biota composed of fresh and salt water species.
Among the most famous examples are Crystal River and the St. Johns River, both of which supported chief- dom level societies in Mississippian times. These variations serve to illustrate the point that exceptions are as important as the mle itself. Deviations indicate the relationships among various components of a model. For me, this is the most important aspect of the rivers- as-centers, rivers-as-boundaries distinction. In northern Florida, we can see the typical Mississippian subsistence strategy modified to conform with local conditions.
I have argued the same for Mississippian settlement in the Georgia Piedmont Shapiro An underlying pattern crosscuts various environments. Whether they lived in the Mississippi Valley, the Georgia Piedmont, or northern Florida, horticultural chiefdoms of the Southeast achieved balanced access to favored horticultural soils and aquatic resources.
References Cited Fairbanks, Charles H. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter 10 2 Femald, Edward A. Patton editors Water Resources Atlas of Florida. Hann, John H. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Hudson, Charles M. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.
Jones, B. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 7 l Lorant, Stefan The New World. Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York. Milanich, Jerald T. Fairbanks Florida Archaeology. American Antiquity 43 4 Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr. Moore, pp. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Shelby, Charmion translator La Florida by the Inca. Smith, Bruce D. Academic Press, New York. Palmetto Books, Gainesville. Swanton, John R. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
Florida Department of State, Tallahassee. White, Nancy M. Worth, John E. Seidemann,1 Christine L. Halling,2 Ryan M. Seidemann,3 and Glen H. The morphology of the palatine torus can be unilateral or bilateral, following the entire midline or only the anterior portion of the palate Hauser and DeStefano While morphologically the palatine torus is an exostosis as broadly defined in Buikstra and Ubelaker a benign new growth protruding from the surface of a bone and characteristically capped by cartilage , multiple lines of evidence from decades of research indicate that the palatine torus is a unique nonmetric trait with multifactorial causes including genetic, environmental, and dietary factors that influence its development.
Simple categorization of the trait as an exostosis does not broach the complexity of this feature as a recent review of oral exostoses has noted Leonard et al. Most sources in the literature agree that the palatine torus is an autosomal dominant trait Barbujani et al. Eggen et al. Each population, therefore, will vary in its palatine torus expression depending on the gene pool and environment. Some research suggests that the palatine torus is a trait more prevalent in females, though this sex difference is still debated in the literature Hauser and DeStefano At a glance, frequency appears to be population dependent in archaeological samples.
Higher frequency in females has been observed in northern Arctic or higher latitude populations, whereas males exhibit a higher prevalence in areas closer to the equator. However, this generalization results from the survey of few archaeological samples in the literature reporting on the palatine torus frequency. In the archaeological literature reviewed here, four samples show a higher prevalence in males, three in females, and two samples where the prevalence is equal between males and females.
One sample is not applicable for inclusion of sex frequency of the trait see Table 1 for further detail on these archaeological samples and the frequency of the trait by sex. Although factors such as environment, genetics, diet, masticatory stress, and age all have been proposed to have an effect on the formation and development of the palatine torus Barbujani et al.
The Windover site 8BR sample was chosen for this study because of the considerable amount of available data regarding the age-at-death, sex, and diet of the sample population. Additionally, the multifactorial etiology of the palatine torus illustrates the need for careful examination of multiples lines of evidence to support conclusions in the archaeological record.
The Windover site location, during its time of use, was inland, providing further interpretive value for archaeological site investigation and corresponding osteological studies. In particular, this study assesses the presence of the palatine torus through examination of an archaeologically-derived sample, combined with a well- documented data on diet and dental wear to determine which if any etiological factors may be correlated to the development of the palatine torus at the Windover site.
Summary of publications featuring palatine torus data from archaeological samples. Materials and Methods The human remains of individuals were recovered from within an excavated pond at the Windover site Doran et al. The site consists of a long-standing pond that served as a cemetery for the Windover population. The pond bottom is composed of multiple strata of anaerobic peat, whose deposition resulted from the accumulation of decomposing plant material for the last 10, years Doran Burials were placed in shallow depressions in the peat and were often wrapped in fabric, covered in wood debris, and intentionally staked to the pond floor Doran Glen Doran and David Dickel conducted excavations at the Windover site over a month period from Radiocarbon dating of human bone, wooden stakes, peat, and bottle gourds placed burial activities in the Early Archaic period after Milanich , from 8, 6, years BP Doran and Dickel Demographic information of the individuals recovered from the Windover sample is representative of all age and sex categories.
Fifty-three individuals had intact palates and were scored for the presence of the palatine torus. Twelve of these palates were subadults and therefore eliminated from further analysis. Further, two individuals who had no correlated sex or age information were also eliminated from analysis resulting in 39 individual palates available for analysis that had been subjected to sex and age analysis.
Of those 39 individuals, 27 had intact dentition, allowing for the analysis of tooth wear as a factor in the development of the palatine torus. Standard approaches were used in the assessment of sex, age, and dental wear. Using available sex and age determinations from the Windover sample, analyses of the correlation of these demographic variables to the amount of expression of the palatine torus in the sample was possible.
In this assessment each complete palate was scored using the method developed by Turner et al. Degree of expression was ranked on a 5 point scale from 0 to 4, where 0 is no expression of a palatine torus anywhere along the midline of the palate and 4 is a large, elevated palatine torus covering the majority of the midline. No expressions of the Seidemann, et al. Windover Site Palatine Torus 17 palatine toms present in the Windover sample were so large as to rank a 4 on the scale. Presence and degree of expression were scored for both bilateral and unilateral tori; in the rare instance that the palatine toms was asymmetrical the degree of expression was scored on the side of the palate with the most prominent toms formation.
Although the Turner et al. Indeed, despite the use of Turner et al. A review of the methods used for documentation of archaeological material revealed that six different methods from ten studies have been employed to document the palatine toms. A scale similar to what was used here, measurement on a scale of , was used by Hooton , Halffman and Irish , and Baumann et al.
Hrdlicka and Sawyer et al. Halffman et al. Regardless of the method applied, the subjective and varied methodologies used to describe this trait make comparisons between and among samples difficult see Table 1 , often requiring researchers as here to strip out data regarding the degree of expression for cross-sample comparisons. While it would be ideal for all researchers to use the same standard, this is simply not what has occurred in the past, and comparative analyses must account for these discrepancies a reality that often undermines maximum inter-sample comparability.
Tuross et al. The researchers used samples removed from ribs of the human remains for the isotope studies Tuross et al. The stable isotope values of the Windover skeletons were found to be consistent with a diet comprised of river-dwelling fauna, such as catfish and duck, and some terrestrial flora, mostly grapes and prickly pear Tuross et al.
The isotope values did not support a subsistence strategy dependent on the extensive use of marine animals or traditional terrestrial fauna, such as deer and rabbit. As summarized by Doran , the isotopic information shows no hint of marine orientation and is best interpreted as a freshwater and terrestrial signature. Excavations of burials revealed some evidence of fish consumption, such as killifish, shiners, and catfish, as well as remains of seeds of fleshy fruits and berries; however, comparative archaeobotanical data from three other Archaic sites in Florida support the idea that prickly pear, grape, and palm were the main botanical diet staples, while other plants, such as acorns and wild grass seeds, though present, were not an important food source Newsom ,,a, b.
Results Of the 41 palates analyzed, 30 The confidence interval for proportions demonstrates that the true population frequency is between 0. The majority of the tori had a score of 1 The remaining tori were scored as 0 The data from Windover are reported in Table 3 alongside comparative data from other archaeologically- derived samples. The two-tailed t-tests reported in Table 3 are the results of rates of expression comparisons between each individual reported sample and the Windover data.
Therefore, Table 3 indicates whether the mean rate of expression for a given comparative sample is or is not statistically similar to that of Windover. In addition to the simple expression rate of the palatine torus in the Windover sample and its comparison to other samples worldwide, analyses using the Pearsons coefficient of correlation allowed for intrasite testing of relationships between torus expression and other variables at Windover.
Finally, an analysis of the relationship Table 2. Summary of statistical information and comparison to data from the Windover sample. Nicholaos Church 79 0. Seidemann, et al. Discussion As the palatine torus is one bony feature without any real meaningful explanation, this sample contributes to the still growing literature regarding this nonmetric feature. The frequency of the palatine torus in multiple samples is presented here for comparative purposes in Table 4.
Frequency, while easy to quantify is unlikely to accurately represent the true distribution of the palatine torus. A high frequency and therefore presence of the trait does not necessarily mean that there is a single explanation for the display of the trait. Therefore, while frequency is a simple quantifier of the palatine torus and can be used to analyze and compare samples worldwide, that variable is tempered according to the scale used for each population sample and by the reality that the probable multifactorial causation cannot be fully explored through cross-sample comparisons.
For this table, we standardized the available published data for comparison. The standardized data from archaeological samples in Table 4 demonstrate the full range of palatine torus frequency, illustrating an interesting variation in palatine torus expression: there appears no temporal or geographic correlation to the existence of the palatine torus in a sample. Some studies suggest a link between the development of the palatine torus and a dietary intake of fatty saltwater fish Eggen et al.
A diet of marine food, especially one comprised of foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, has been suggested as one of the specific environmental influences on palatine torus formation Kerdpon and Sirirungrojying Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate prostaglandin production, which, in turn stimulates osteoblastic activity and bone remodeling in the palate Watkins et al. Prostaglandins are fatty acid derivatives that have many physiological functions, one being the regulation of bone formation and resorption Raisz and Fall E series prostaglandins PGE2 are necessary for bone formation.
They can inhibit osteoclastic activity and stimulate osteoblasts Watkins et al. A diet rich in flax from grasses and seeds and fish oil will promote the production of PGE2 in the body, thus enhancing the development of the palatine torus through osteoblastic stimulation. A dietary deficiency of essential fatty acids has been linked to bone demineralization Alfin-Slater and Bemick , thus potentially hindering palatine torus development in populations otherwise genetically predisposed for the trait.
What is lacking in the Windover sample is the food that stimulates the production of PGE2, thus suggesting that, even if the Windover people had a genetic predisposition to express the palatine torus as the high frequency of tori present suggest , the lack of dietary stimulants kept what tori did form to a size minimum.
The Windover sample provided the opportunity to examine whether, as some scholars have posited, there may be a relationship between palatine torus formation, intensity, and dental wear e. This proposed relationship assumes that there is a causal factor in the severity of palatine torus expression resulting from masticatory stress in a given sample with dental wear used as a proxy for masticatory stress.
At least for the Windover sample, this proposed relationship was not supported by the data. As noted above, there is no significant correlation of dental wear to the presence or size of the palatine torus in the examined Windover individuals.
This was a surprising result, as the generally substantial tooth wear of the Windover people leads to an expectation that the present palatine tori would be substantial in size. Although it is not possible to rule out masticatory stress as a contributing factor to palatine torus size in general, the data collected here demonstrate no relationship between these variables at Windover.
Finally, it is apparent from the standardized comparative data presented in Table 3 that interpreting causal factors in palatine torus presence and size based merely upon cross-sample comparisons is virtually impossible. The basic notion behind the construction of this table is that, if certain shared geographic locations, dietary similarities, or temporal relationships exist between or among samples in the table, statistical comparisons of palatine torus presence between samples should provide clues to causal factors in torus expression.
However, as a cursory review of this table demonstrates, this notion does not ring true. For example, it is curious that there is a statistically significant similarity between the Windover palatine torus incidence and the incidence of the trait in the majority of Near Eastern skeletal samples analyzed by Eroglu and Erdal Further, though the Windover palatine torus incidence is statistically similar to that of some of the other reported New World Native American samples such as the Huron of the Poole-Rose site in Ontario Seidemann and the Native American sample reported by Hooton , it is statistically different from the Native American sample reported by Woo and from the Peruvian sample reported by Hrdlicka In other words, while it is convenient to attempt to group trait incidence by easily knowable sample identifiers e.
Summary of all populations with data on sample size, presence of Palatine Torus, and frequency. Nicholaos Church Anatolia 79 69 Windover Site Palatine Torus 21 Conclusion Significant focus on the Windover sample by previous researchers provided a wide range of analyses including isotopic analyses of diet and substantial inquiries into the subsistence patterns of these peoples , information from which can be drawn upon to provide insight into possible causal factors of the palatine torus.
The Windover people were not consuming large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, and thus were not stimulating the development of their palatine tori with prostaglandins. Their diet lacked sources such as fatty fish and flax seed that are rich in omega-3s; however, the palatine torus is still present in a significant portion of this skeletal sample. Based upon the absence of dietary triggers for palatine torus development in the Windover sample, the statistically significant presence of the trait in this sample supports the notion that the presence of the trait is genetically determined, while the degree of the torus expression is only influenced by diet.
A high percentage of the palates from the Windover site sample exhibit palatine tori, but few have a high degree of expression grade 2 or higher. Therefore the presence of a high amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect the degree of the palatine torus expression, but is not the impetus for its formation. Because there is no statistically significant relationship between palatine torus expression and age, sex, or wear in the Windover sample, it is apparent that Barbujani et al.
Because the diet of the Windover people did not consist of a high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, their tori may have been underdeveloped. Ultimately, the high frequency but small size of the palatine torus reported here is best explained by the genetic predisposition and had little to do with the consumption of dietary sources for the Windover sample.
Acknowledgments The authors thank Christopher M. Stojanowski for sharing Windover dental wear data. References Cited Alfin-Slater, R. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Axelsson, G. Hedegaard Torus Palatinus in Icelandic Schoolchildren. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Barbujani, G. Rolo, I. Barrai, and J. Human Heredity Baumann, M. Lynnerup, and G. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 27 2 Buikstra, J. Doran, Glen H. Bullen Series. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Dickel Multidisciplinary investigations at the Windover site. New Jersey: Telford Press. Dickel, Lee A. Newsom A 7,year-old bottle gourd from the Windover site, Florida. American Antiquity Eggen, S. Natvig, and J. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research Eroglu, S. Fox, J. London: E. Cox and Son. Archive of Oral Biology 41 6 Gorsky, M. Bukai, and M. American Journal of Medical Genetics Gould, A. Journal of Dental Research Scott, and P. Pedersen Palatine Torus in the Greenlandic Norse.
Halffman, C. Haugen, L. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 50 2 Hauser, G. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbartshe Verlagsbuchhandlung. Hauswirth, William W. Dickel, Glen H. Doran, Philip J. Laipis, and David N. Dickel year-old brain tissue from the Windover site: anatomical, cellular, and molecular analysis. Ortner and A. Aufderheide, eds. Hooton, E.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology l l Hrdlicka, Ales Mandibular and Maxillary Hyperostoses. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 27 1 : Kerdpon, D. European Journal of Oral Sciences Leonard, A. Bayle, P. Murail, and J. Bulletins et memoires de la Societe danthropologie de Paris 26 : Newsom, L. Siegler-Eisenberg, pp.
Miscellaneous Project and Report Series No. The Florida Anthropologist Nichol, C. Raisz, L. Endocrinology Sawyer, Danny R. Allison, Richard P. Seidemann, E. Unpublished M. Folia Morphology 62 3 : Suzuki, M. Tuross, N. Fogel, L. Newsom, and G. Turner, C. Nichol, and G. In Advances in Dental Anthropology, edited by M.
Kelley and Clark Spencer Larsen, pp. Wiley-Liss, Inc. Journal of Dental Research 45 5 Watkins, B. Li, H. Lippman, and M. Experimental Biology and Medicine Woo, J. Although DNA extraction and analysis is excellent for this purpose, it is not always possible, particularly in a climate such as Florida.
Further, DNA extraction is destructive and culturally insensitive. We have other means by which to examine the migration and social interaction of ancient people through their remains without the use of invasive methods, a field known as biodistance analysis Stojanowski and Hubbard Teeth are common agents of biodistance analysis for numerous reasons. Because they are composed of a harder substance than bone, they are usually the most common elements preserved in burial sites.
Teeth are also good estimates of underlying genetic variation, as demonstrated by many studies Hlusko et al. Thus, the observation of teeth from comparative contemporaneous populations can provide insight into genetic relationships without the use of destructive analysis. Discrete or nonmetric traits of teeth are morphological variants that cannot easily be measured, so they are scored as present or absent.
Many of these features are tooth cusps, grooves, and ridges. Furthermore, one recent study demonstrated that each tooth varied in its heritability measure Stojanowski et al. Recent advances in the genetics underlying dental development substantiate the use of these features for discerning biological affinities Hlusko et al.
These plaques have standardized the scoring of dental nonmetric traits and have been used extensively in studies of biodistance e. Furthermore, dental nonmetric traits are not sexually dimorphic Hanihara ; Willermet and Edgar , are conservative in nature, and have low correlation to each other, which makes them good for cladistics analyses Irish et al. Studies during the last 20 years have advanced our knowledge of the coordination between dental genetics and tooth morphogenesis.
This work indicates that at least nine homeobox genes are involved in the formation of teeth in the embryo and moreover, separate tooth fields are controlled by different genes e. Studies on mouse embryos specify that there are at least four genes that are involved in incisal formation, which work separately from the five or more genes controlling molar formation.
Therefore, the incisor module forms genetically independently of postcanine teeth, and premolars and molars form as submodules, at least in baboons and other Old World monkeys Grieco et al. One recent study questioned this effect in humans Stojanowski et al. This study will make four assumptions that are made by all studies of biodistance.
First, estimates of biological distance will predict the amount of social interaction that occurred between populations. Second, allele changes that are due to microevolution are evident in non-metric traits. Third, rare dental variants actually have low heritability, and thereby their presence in a family is due to chance alone.
Fourth, a cemetery or a sample thereof represents an actual breeding population Kies ; Stojanowski and Schillaci The last assumption is problematic, because for many archaeological sites, we do not know the temporal period in which they were used, or exactly by whom Novak For the intents and purposes of this study, even though each site does not correspond to a point in time, testing the sites as belonging to a gene pool is still viable. It is also presumed that these populations would practice matrilocality, a pattern demonstrated at the Palmer site Kies and common in other southeastern native societies Hudson Southern Florida was first populated by people during the Paleoindian period e.
From this time up to and including the Contact Period, archaeologists have been uncertain of social, cultural, and political ties within this region. No modem correlates of these people exist, and the few ethnographic accounts from the historic period do not present us with much information.
Burial mounds were constructed in two of these areas during the early Woodland and mid Woodland, so many of the individuals scored here were interred in mounds composed of sand Luer The null hypothesis of this study is that there are no differences in trait frequencies between the study populations Harris and Sjovold ; Irish ; This investigation will test whether cultural areas reflect disparate populations that had little to no migration or gene flow between them.
If movement was restricted between cultural areas, then this genetic drift will be manifested as a difference in dental nonmetric traits. In one analysis, incisal and molar features will be treated separately in case they differ in genetic and developmental origin. The names of the sites, number of samples from each site, time period and type of site are listed in Table 1. Ten of the sites are located on the coast in the Manasota and Caloosahatchee regions and one site, Fort Center, is located inland in the Okeechobee region Figure 1.
Individuals from Fort Center were chosen to represent an outgroup by which to contrast the coastal populations. It existed from about B. In both of these areas, village locations reflect a mixed economy, spanning the environments between the shore and interior. As demonstrated by large village sites in this rich habitat, Manasota and Caloosahatchee people could remain sedentary.
Manasota burials consisted of primary, flexed burials in or near shell middens early during the period, changing to secondary burials by the later Manasota Koski et al. Marquardt a states that burial mounds are rare in the Caloosahatchee I period and that hardly any burials have been found in the Caloosahatchee region dating to this time period.
Geographical location of the sites from southern Florida used in the study. Southwest Florida sites sampled in the study, with the number of individuals scored at each site, date of the site, geographical location and where the burials were found. However, the origins of the Calusa people are not known. From as early as B. In the Middle Woodland period, large platform mounds and causeways were constructed at several sites in this region e.
At Fort Center, along with ditches, mounds, and other earthworks, people built a charnel house where bundled burials were placed on a platform in a charnel pond Sears ; Thompson and Pluckhahn Some of the teeth scored here were from individuals recovered from the charnel pond. From these 11 sites, individuals were selected and the dentition was scored. The people examined in this study demonstrate extensive occlusal dental wear mainly due to attrition and abrasion, probably from a gritty diet.
Teenagers and young adults were chosen predominantly because there was too much dental wear on older adults, which obliterates dental features. In all, 38 traits and 64 tooth-trait combinations were scored in this study, and the amount of wear for each tooth and any pathological condition were recorded.
If there were a difference in the scoring between antimeres the same tooth on the opposite sides of the mouth , the tooth with the maximum expression for a phenotype was recorded Coppa et al. If there were only one side or only loose teeth present, that side or those teeth are assumed to be an accurate representation of the state of the individual Irish Because numerous studies have failed to detect significant sexual dimorphism in dental traits, the data for the sexes were pooled together Coppa et al.
A list of dental traits used in the final analysis and their descriptions are found in Table 2. Due to the fragmentary status of prehistoric remains in southern Florida, the dentition and dataset has many missing values. In addition, some of the sample sizes are quite small. In order to use MMD, scores were dichotomized into present or absent following previous studies e.
Breakpoints, at which a trait was deemed to be expressed, were gleaned from Scott and Turner , Irish , and from Coppa and colleagues Table 2 lists the breakpoints used in this study. Although the practice of creating a binary code has the effect of the loss of information, it is necessary to manage the large quantity of data and to utilize multi-variate statistical programs. The raw data for 64 variables were input into SPSS Thirteen traits were removed due to this editing and 51 remained.
Next, traits were examined to see if they did not vary. For example, only 4 parastyles were observed on all of the UM1 scored, and none were observed on UM2 nor UM3 in any individual, so these variables were removed. The culling of traits left 33 remaining from The percentages of each trait per sample were then calculated Table 3 , as well as the number of traits counted as present in each sample Irish ; Soltysiak Three analyses were run: the first compared all 11 sites to one another; the second compared the values of the three cultural areas to each other; and the third separated the incisal features from the molar features and compared only incisors to incisors and molars to molars from each site.
Before running this analysis, all MMD values exceeding Dental traits used in analysis and their description Trait Trait description from Turner et al. It was rare to see individuals without any shoveling, and extremes, where I2s were scored as barrel shaped were scored in 8 individuals. Shoveling of the UI1 averaged Nearly a fifth of all individuals Traits infrequently viewed on the maxillary dentition include interruption grooves on the UI1 4.
In the mandibular dentition, Four individuals had a rare dental trait on their permanent, anterior maxillary incisors that is known as a talon cusp. Stojanowski, personal communication, June 30, ; Stojanowski et al. It is worn, but it is probably a type 2 talon cusp. The individual is an adult, likely a male. The first indication of this homogeneity is that the variable status table generated by the R script for the MMD Table 4 demonstrates that these traits are not useful in distinguishing the populations.
All mean values are negative except for one trait Cusp 5 LM1 , which occurs when sample sizes are too small or traits do not vary sufficiently Soltysiak If there were more positive values in column 1, those traits with high values in columns 1 and 2 would be selected and the negative traits would be discarded, but with only one positive value it is not possible.
The second indication of homogeneity is the MMD matrix Table 5. All matrix values are negative and the statistical significance values are all 1. In this analysis, two traits out of the 33 were positive Shovel UI1 and Hypocone UM1 , but the rest were still negative.
The MMD matrix values were all negative and statistically not significant, again indicating that the populations of the three regions do not vary. In the third analysis, incisal traits did not differ between sites, nor did molar traits. The cluster analysis Figure 2 separates out two main clusters: one with Fort Center, Manasota Key, Palmer site on one branch and Yellow Bluffs and Pillsbury on the other. In sites such as Useppa Island, Buck Key, and Dunwody, a combination of poor preservation and few individuals results in many features that cannot be scored, and percentages are based upon only one to two individuals.
Features of the roots were not frequently scored at any site because viewing of them was difficult as most were still situated in alveolar sockets, so the low percentages recorded here do not reflect an accurate assessment. The Middle Woodland populations observed here have dental traits that are similar to those studied at Windover Pond, Florida Stojanowski et al.
Percentages of discrete dental features at each of the sites. Groove UI1 1. Groove UI2 8. Variable status, generated from the MMD analysis. Groove UI1 Groove UI2 UM1 UM2 Cusps LM1 LM2 These rare traits are most frequently found in lateral, maxillary incisors, as were the four reported here. Results of the MMD Analysis The results of the MMD analysis revealed that the Middle Woodland southern Florida populations show little to no variability from each other and therefore the null hypothesis is supported.
The individuals living in this geographic location are genetically homogeneous as demonstrated by dental nonmetric traits. The results of the cluster analysis agree with a lack of geographic distinction Figure 2. Clusters do not follow the cultural regions or even proximity to one another. Fort Center, Manasota Key, and Palmer may form a cluster because they have the largest sample sizes and represent the most accurate trait frequencies.
The result of the MDS analysis agrees with the groupings of the cluster analysis. Referring back to the percentages of trait features, nothing seems to distinguish these groups from each other. Useppa Island is distinguished from the other sites by its more recent date, but also by its missing values from the poor preservation of the sample.
Previous studies based on craniometries support the results found here to some extent. Kies examined biodistance among prehistoric Florida populations through craniometric data. She also concludes that the Manasota populations were closely related and there was some relative homogeneity in individuals during the Woodland period. However, she does not separate out the Middle Woodland sites from all Woodland ones, and she does see a distinction between the east and west coast populations.
Dental non-metrics from east coast populations were not examined here, so her conclusions are not directly comparable to this study. Steadman studied cranial measurements from Late Woodland and Mississippian individuals in west-central Illinois. She determines that Woodland populations were relatively homogeneous in comparison to Mississippian ones. Similar site distances between the two time periods were no barrier to gene flow in the earlier period, yet in the later period, social boundaries prevented such movement.
Does the result that southern Florida population have close biological affinities make sense in lieu of the archaeological record? Most of the samples measured here date from approximately B. In addition, after conducting extensive excavations in this region and examining the commonality of artifacts and pottery, Marquardt b concludes that coastal areas communicated with the interior of southern Florida during Caloosahatchee I.
Canoes were used in Florida since Mid-Archaic times Wheeler and the Caloosahatchee River as well as canals connecting sites to it would have enabled travel throughout southern Florida. Even into the Caloosahatchee IIA period, the people at Pineland were more sedentary, yet still participated in long-distance trade networks. Only after A. This relationship between archaeology and the public has often been overlooked and constantly changes.
Public archaeology, as a field of research and practice, has been developing since the s in English-speaking countries, particularly in the United States, Britain, and Australia, and is today beginning to spread to other parts of the world. Global expansion of public archaeology comes with the recognition of the need for a careful understanding of local contexts, particularly the culture and socio-political climate.
This volume critically examines the current theories and practices of public archaeology through relevant case studies from different regions throughout the world, including: Japan, China, South Korea, New Caledonia, South Africa, Senegal, Jordon, Italy, Peru, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia.
These case studies are examined from a wide variety of theoretical contexts, to provide a thorough and comprehensive guide to the state of public archaeology today, as well as implications for its future. The contributions in this wide-ranging work are a key source of information for anyone practicing or studying archaeology in a public context.
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Gilgamesch , Sep 9, Joined: Jul 19, Messages: 1, Gender: Male. The first one should definitely be included in the base game, silly that it's not. Thank you William, I very much look forward to trying these out!
Joined: Oct 29, Messages: 1, Global - Archaeologist Dig Sites: zomg i've been waiting for something like this. Joined: May 7, Messages: 1, Awesome, thank you! Barathor , Sep 12, You must log in or sign up to reply here. Show Ignored Content.
Share This Page Tweet. When it is active, the tools at the front will be on top of the workbench, and there will be Relic Scraps on top of it as well. Note: there is apparently a conflict with the Natura mod, where if it's installed you can only craft it with crafting tables from Natura trees. The Archeology Workbench's main use is to restore artifacts to their previous glory.
To use the Archeology Workbench, you must have a good amount of Relic Scraps, which come from Fossils Stone Tablets do not work , as this is the only thing that can power the workbench. You must also have any kind of broken ancient artifact see below. Put the Relic Scraps in the bottom slot, as 'fuel' and put the artifact in the left slot. The workbench will then start powering, and after some time, the artifact will be restored.