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In natural gas, Ohio saw the biggest addition of reserves, at Three shale plays—the Eagle Ford, the Barnett, and the Bossier play—all saw sizeable reserve drops in Last year likely saw even further declines in gas reserves and probably a decline in crude oil reserves, too, after the dive prices took in early spring on the back of the short but meaningful Saudi-Russian oil prices war, which was promptly followed by the coronavirus pandemic.
As producers cut their exploration and production budgets and many started on a path to diversification into renewable energy, chances are proven fossil fuel reserves in the United States dipped. Prices have begun recovering lately, but the rebound has not been strong enough to merit a return to an exploration boom. It was observed from figure that the pore radius is deceases as pressure increases and the behavior of gas adsorption-induced pore radius reduction was found different as each sample has different characteristics.
Hence,it is cleared from this outcome that gas adsorption capacity is a key factor that affects pore radius of shale. Further, it was also observed in Figure 5 that pore radius is more affected at low pressure MPa as compare to high Pressure above 10MPa at different shale samples.
The D-R model provides the better results as compare with Langmuir adsorption model Figure 6 because D-R model is built based on the micropore-filling mechanism whereas Langmuir model assumes monomolecular layer adsorption on pore surfaces [ 40 ]. Hence, it is observed from results that TOC and SSA are the controlling factors of methane gas adsorption capacity and provides useful information for shale gas measurement and development.
From the literature, it was also found that the methane gas adsorption capacities of the organic matter such as kerogen and mineral components are important for evaluating the methane gas adsorption capacity for shales [ 41 ]. Further, different shale samples have contains different SSA and gas adsorption capacity whereas parameters may vary due to presence of kerogen type and mineral components in shale sample. Similarly, SSA of mineral components has found different in different shale samples [ 44 , 45 ].
As discussed above that the gas adsorption have an effect on the pore radius but on other end the effective stress is also effect on pore radius as observed in literature [ 24 , 29 ]. The variation in effective stress is influenced on pore radius and result gas permeability change.
Figure 8 describe that the effect of effective stress changes on gas permeability and pore radius [ 29 ]. It has been observed from this figure that pore radius is deceases as effective stress increases and due to this effect the gas permeability is decreases and also relation in between the effective stress and pore size is linearly found.
The relation between gas permeability and apparent permeability at different gases such as helium and methane is shown in Figure 9. Further, it was noted that gas apparent permeability is always higher than gas permeability and its value may vary with intrinsic permeability and flow regimes as well.
As discussed above that when effective stress increases, the pore radius and gas permeability is decreases. But on other hand, due to increase of effective stress, the slip-flow parameters also change and result slip effect that enhances the gas apparent permeability. Figure 10 shows the same effect as described above and further changes in Klinkenberg coefficient due to gas adsorption-induced pore radius may cause of increases Klinkenberg gas permeability.
Hence, combine impact of slip flow and effective stress with Klinkenberg coefficient gas adsorption-induced pore radius is very important and provides understanding in evolution of gas apparent permeability during shale gas production.
Impact of Slip flow and effective stress on Permeability due to Klinkenberg coefficient gas adsorption-induced pore radius at different gases. Hence, this principle is not likely to be valid in evaluation of shale gas permeability. Figure 11 shows the effective stress coefficient increases as gas apparent permeability decreases when slip is considered. Further, it was observed that no effective stress coefficient impact was found at gas apparent permeability when slip flow is not considered.
Hence, it has been cleared from this outcome that the impact of effective stress coefficient is larger at gas apparent permeability when slip flow is considered and smaller when slip flow is not considered. Klinkenberg cofficient value is affected due to gas adsorption-induced pore radius impacts and resulted in a change in gas permeability. However, this value may be more affected as it changes with increase or decrease of gas adsorption capacity and specific surface area of shale samples.
Gas permeability measured from new proposed model is provide good results in slip flow region as compare to existing equation. Gas adsorption parameters such as sorption capacity, total organic content and specific surface area are the major factors that affect the pore radius of shale.
Different shale samples contain different specific surface area and gas adsorption capacity; therefore, values of these parameters may vary due to presence of kerogen type and mineral components. Knudsen number is affecting due to gas adsorption-induced pore radius; therefore it is better to correct the Knudsen number before measurement of shale gas apparent permeability.
Pore radius is affected due to change of effective stress and result change in gas permeability. Slip effect enhances the gas apparent permeability and also change with effective stress; therefore, combine impact of slip flow and effective stress is very important and provides understanding in evolution of gas apparent permeability during shale gas production. Both organic and inorganic materials are present and play a key role for shale gas characterization; therefore, impact of organic and inorganic material on shale gas properties and gas adsorption capacity will be investigated in future work.
Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, , Doi Transport in Porous Media, , , Doi Eng, , 3 1 , 43—77, Doi Gas Sci. Eng, , 23, —, Doi Porous Med, , 1, —, Doi Fluid Mech, , —, Doi Coal Geol, , , —, Doi Eng, , 65, —, Doi A, , , , Doi March 10—13, , Doi July , , Doi Search in Google Scholar. Eng, , —, Doi The aim of the journal is to become the premier source of high quality research from all over the world. Open Geosciences is designed to facilitate the exchange of ideas between experienced and young researchers from different countries.
Free language correction is provided to authors from non-English speaking regions. Additionally, each published article is promoted to researchers working in the same field of Earth Sciences. Why read. From volume , publication costs are covered by so called Article Processing Charges APC , paid by authors' affiliated institutions, funders or sponsors. If you plan to write, have written or contemplate writing a book, you may want to consider publishing it in Open Access.
In this model, your book is available online to all interested readers who do not have to pay for accessing its contents. Barabach degruyter. EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view. Confirm Cancel. De Gruyter Abstract Shale, a heterogeneous and extremely complex gas reservoir, contains low porosity and ultra-Low permeability properties at different pore scales.
Figure 1 Work flow of present study. Table 1 Experimental measured gas permeability and fitting parameters of shale sample [ 21 ]. Table 2 Identification of Knudsen number associated with flow regimes for shale. Table 3 Collision diameter of gas molecules of different gases.
Figure 3 MFPG under same temperature and different pressure and gas types. Table 4 Corrected value of pore radius, Klinkenberg coefficient and gas permeability. Figure 4 Views of constant and variable Klinkenberg coefficient at methane gas for sample 2. Figure 5 Impacts of gas adsorption- induced pore radius on gas adsorption capacity at various pressures. Figure 8 Effect of effective stress on pore radius and gas permeability.
Figure 9 Gas permeability and apparent permeability at different gases for sample 2. Figure 10 Impact of Slip flow and effective stress on Permeability due to Klinkenberg coefficient gas adsorption-induced pore radius at different gases. D—A Dubinin— Astakhov. D—R Dubinin and Radushkevich. LBM Lattice Boltzmann method. D Parameter related to the pore structure.
K aap Gas apparent permeability, nd. K g Gas permeability, nd. K o Absolute permeability, nd. K n Knudsen number, dimensionless. P Equilibrium pressure, MPa. P Gas pressure, Pascal. P c Confining pressure, MPa. P L Langmuir pressure, MPa. P m Mean gas pressure, MPa. P 0 Saturation vapor pressure, MPa. P p Pore pressure, MPa. V Amount of adsorbed gas or absolute gas adsorption. V 0 Volume of micro-pores or maximum sorption capacity. Memon, A. Effect of gas adsorption-induced pore radius and effective stress on shale gas permeability in slip flow: New Insights.
Open Geosciences , 11 1 , Open Geosciences, Vol. Open Geosciences. Copy to clipboard. Log in Register. Open Access. Volume 11 Issue 1. This issue All issues. A new method of lithologic identification and distribution characteristics of fine - grained sediments: A case study in southwest of Ordos Basin, China.
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