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In preferred embodiments of a method for conducting demand-based trading, the method further includes the step of calculating Credit-Capital- At-Risk for at least one investment of value units by at least one trader. In preferred embodiments of a method for conducting demand-based trading of the present invention, at least one investment of value units is a multi-state investment that designates a set of defined states. In a further preferred embodiment, at least one multi-state investment designates a set of desired returns that is responsive to the designated set of defined states, and the allocating step is further responsive to the set of desired returns.

In a further preferred embodiment, each desired return of the set of desired returns is responsive to a subset of the designated set of defined states. In an alternative preferred embodiment, the set of desired returns approximately corresponds to expected returns from a set of defined states of a prespecified investment vehicle such as, for example, a particular call option.

In preferred embodiments of a method for conducting demand-based trading of the present invention, the allocating step includes the steps of a calculating the required number of value units of the multi-state investment that designates a set of desired returns, and b distributing the value units of the multi-state investment that designates a set of desired returns to the plurality of defined states.

In a further preferred embodiment, the allocating step includes the step of solving a set of simultaneous equations that relate traded amounts to unit payouts and payout distributions; and the calculating step and the distributing step are responsive to the solving step. In preferred embodiments of a method for conducting demand-based trading of the present invention, the solving step includes the step of fixed point iteration.

In further preferred embodiments, the step of fixed point iteration includes the steps of a selecting an equation of the set of simultaneous equations described above, the equation having an independent variable and at least one dependent variable; b assigning arbitrary values to each of the dependent variables in the selected equation; c calculating the value of the independent variable in the selected equation responsive to the currently assigned values of each the dependent variables; d assigning the calculated value of the independent variable to the independent variable; e designating an equation of the set of simultaneous equations as the selected equation; and f sequentially performing the calculating the value step, the assigning the calculated value step, and the designating an equation step until the value of each of the variables converges.

A preferred embodiment of a method for estimating state probabilities in a demand-based trading method of the present invention includes the steps of: a performing a demand-based trading method having a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein an investment of value units by each of a plurality of traders is accepted in at least one of the defined states, and at least one of these defined states corresponds to at least one possible outcome of an event of economic significance; b monitoring the relative number of value units invested in each of the defined states; and c estimating, responsive to the monitoring step, the probability that a selected defined state will be the defined state that occurs upon fulfillment of all of the termination criteria.

An additional preferred embodiment of a method for estimating state probabilities in a demand-based trading method also includes performing, monitoring, and estimating steps. The performing step includes performing a demand-based trading method having a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein an investment of value units by each of a plurality of traders is accepted in at least one of the defined states; and wherein each of the defined states corresponds to a possible state of a selected financial product when each of the termination criteria is fulfilled.

The monitoring step includes monitoring the relative number of value units invested in each of the defined states. The estimating step includes estimating, responsive to the monitoring step, the probability that a selected defined state will be the defined state that occurs upon fulfillment of all of the termination criteria.

A preferred embodiment of a method for promoting liquidity in a demand-based trading method of the present invention includes the step of performing a demand-based trading method having a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein an investment of value units by each of a plurality of traders is accepted in at least one of the defined states and wherein any investment of value units cannot be withdrawn after acceptance.

Each of the defined states corresponds to at least one possible outcome of an event of economic significance. A further preferred embodiment of a method for promoting liquidity in a demand- based trading method includes the step of hedging. The hedging step includes the hedging of a trader's previous investment of value units by making a new investment of value units in one or more of the defined states not invested in by the previous investment.

An additional preferred embodiment of a method for promoting liquidity in a demand- based trading method includes the step of performing a demand-based trading method having a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein an investment of value units by each of a plurality of traders is accepted in at least one of the defined states and wherein any investment of value units cannot be withdrawn after acceptance, and each of the defined states corresponds to a possible state of a selected financial product when each of the termination criteria is fulfilled.

A further preferred,, embodiment of such a method for promoting Uquidity in a demand-based trading method includes the step of hedging. A preferred embodiment of a method for conducting quasi-continuous demand-based trading includes the steps of: a establishing a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein each of the defined states corresponds to at least one possible outcome of an event; b conducting a plurality of trading cycles, wherein each trading cycle includes the step of accepting, during a predefined trading period and prior to the fulfillment of all of the termination criteria, an investment of value units by each of a plurality of traders in at least one of the defined states; and c allocating a payout to each investment.

The allocating step is responsive to the total number of the value units invested in the defined states during each of the trading periods, the relative number of the value units invested in each of the defined states during each of the trading periods, and an identification of the defined state that occurred upon fulfillment of all of the termination criteria.

In a further preferred embodiment of a method for conducting quasi-continuous demand-based trading, the predefined trading periods are sequential and do not overlap. Another preferred embodiment of a method for conducting demand-based trading includes the steps of: a establishing a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein each of the defined states corresponds to one possible outcome of an event of economic significance or a financial instrument ; b accepting, prior to fulfillment of all of the termination criteria, an investment of value units by each of a plurality of traders in at least one of the pluraUty of defined states, with at least one investment designating a range of possible outcomes corresponding to a set of defined states; and c allocating a payout to each investment.

In such a preferred embodiment, the allocating step is responsive to the total number of value units in the plurality of defined states, the relative number of value units invested in each of the defined states, and an identification of the defined state that occurred upon the fulfillment of all of the termination criteria. Also in such a preferred embodiment, the allocation is done so that substantially the same payout is allocated to each state of the set of defined states.

This embodiment contemplates, among other implementations, a market or exchange for contingent claims of the present invention that provides — without traditional sellers — profit and loss scenarios comparable to those expected by traders in derivative securities known as digital options, where payout is the same if the option expires anywhere in the money, and where there is no payout if the option expires out of the money.

Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method for conducting demand-based trading including: a establishing a plurality of defined states and a plurality of predetermined termination criteria, wherein each of the defined states corresponds to one possible outcome of an event of economic significance or a financial instrument ; b accepting, prior to fulfillment of all of the termination criteria, a conditional investment order by a trader in at least one of the plurality of defined states; c computing, prior to fulfillment of all of the termination criteria a probability corresponding to each defined state; and d executing or withdrawing, prior to the fulfillment of all of the termination criteria, the conditional investment responsive to the computing step.

In such embodiments, the computing step is responsive to the total number of value units invested in the plurality of defined states and the relative number of value units invested in each of the plurality of defined states.

Such embodiments contemplate, among other implementations, a market or exchange again without traditional sellers in which investors can make and execute conditional or limit orders, where an order is executed or withdrawn in response to a calculation of a probability of the occurrence of one or more of the defined states.

Preferred embodiments of the system of the present invention involve the use of electronic technologies, such as computers, computerized databases and telecommunications systems, to implement methods for conducting demand-based trading of the present invention. A preferred embodiment of a system of the present invention for conducting demand- based trading includes a means for accepting, prior to the fulfillment of all predetermined termination criteria, investments of value units by a plurality of traders in at least one of a plurality of defined states, wherein each of the defined states corresponds to at least one possible outcome of an event of economic significance; and b means for allocating a payout to each investment.

This allocation is responsive to the total number of value units invested in the defined states, the relative number of value units invested in each of the defined states, and the identification of the defined state that occurred upon fulfillment of all of the termination criteria. An additional preferred embodiment of a system of the present invention for conducting demand-based trading includes a means for accepting, prior to the fulfillment of all predetermined termination criteria, investments of value units by a plurality of traders in at least one of a plurality of defined states, wherein each of the defined states corresponds to a possible state of a selected financial product when each of the termination criteria is fulfilled; and b means for allocating a payout to each investment.

A preferred embodiment of a demand-based trading apparatus of the present invention includes a an interface processor communicating with a plurality of traders and a market data system; and b a demand-based transaction processor, communicating with the interface processor and having a trade status database.

The demand-based transaction processor maintains, responsive to the market data system and to a demand-based transaction with one of the plurality of traders, the trade status database, and processes, responsive to the trade status database, the demand-based transaction. In further preferred embodiments of a demand-based trading apparatus of the present invention, maintaining the trade status database includes calculating risk estimates; and processing the demand-based transaction includes providing, responsive to the demand-based transaction, the risk estimates.

Such demand-based transactions may also include multi-state investments that specify the same payout if any of a designated set of states occurs upon fulfillment of the termination criteria. Other demand-based transactions executed by the demand-based trading apparatus of the present invention include conditional investments in one or more states, where the investment is executed or withdrawn in response to a calculation of a probability of the occurrence of one or more states upon the fulfillment of the termination criteria.

In an additional embodiment, systems and methods for conducting demand-based trading includes the steps of a establishing a plurality of states, each state corresponding to at least one possible outcome of an event of economic significance; b receiving an indication of a desired payout and an indication of a selected outcome, the selected outcome corresponding to at least one of the pluraUty of states; and c determining an investment amount as a function of the selected outcome, the desired payout and a total amount invested in the plurality of states.

In another additional embodiment, systems and methods for conducting demand-based trading includes the steps of a establishing a plurality of states, each state corresponding to at least one possible outcome of an event whether or not such event is an economic event ; b receiving an indication of a desired payout and an indication of a selected outcome, the selected outcome corresponding to at least one of the plurality of states; and c determining an investment amount as a function of the selected outcome, the desired payout and a total amount invested in the plurality of states.

In another additional embodiment, systems and methods for conducting demand-based trading includes the steps of a establishing a plurality of states, each state corresponding to at least one possible outcome of an event of economic significance; b receiving an indication of an investment amount and a selected outcome, the selected outcome corresponding to at least one of the plurality of states; and c determining a payout as a function of the investment amount, the selected outcome, a total amount invested in the plurality of states, and an identification of at least one state corresponding to an observed outcome of the event.

In another additional embodiment, systems and methods for conducting demand-based trading include the steps of: a receiving an indication of one or more parameters of a financial product or derivatives strategy; and b determining one or more of a selected outcome, a desired payout, an investment amount, and a limit on the investment amount for each contingent claim in a set of one or more contingent claims as a function of the one or more financial product or derivatives strategy parameters.

In another additional embodiment, systems and methods for conducting demand-based trading include the steps of: a receiving an indication of one or more parameters of a financial product or derivatives strategy; and b determining an investment amount and a selected outcome for each contingent claim in a set of one or more contingent claims as a function of the one or more financial product or derivatives strategy parameters.

In another additional embodiment, a demand-enabled financial product for trading in a demand-based auction includes a set of one or more contingent claims, the set approximating or replicating a financial product or derivatives strategy, each contingent claim in the set having an investment amount and a selected outcome, each investment amount being dependent upon one or more parameters of a financial product or derivatives strategy and a total amount invested in the auction.

In another additional embodiment, methods for conducting demand-based trading on at least one event includes the steps of: a determimng one or more parameters of a contingent claim, in a replication set of one or more contingent claims, as a function of one or more parameters of a derivatives strategy and an outcome of the event; and b determining an investment amount for a contingent claim in the replication set as a function of one or more parameters of the derivatives strategy and an outcome of the event.

In another additional embodiment, methods for conducting derivatives trading include the steps of: receiving an indication of one or more parameters of a derivatives strategy on one or more events of economic significance; and determining one or more parameters of each digital in a replication set made up of one or more digitals as a function of one or more parameters of the derivatives strategy.

In another additional embodiment, methods for trading contingent claims in a demand- based auction, includes the step of approximating or replicating a contingent claim with a set of demand-based claims. The set of demand-based claims includes at least one vanilla option, thus defining a vanilla replicating basis. In another additional embodiment, methods for trading contingent claims in a demand- based auction on an event, includes the step of: determining a value of a contingent claim as a function of a demand-based valuation of each vanilla option in a replication set for the contingent claim.

The repUcation set includes at least one vanilla option, thus defining another vanilla replicating basis. In another additional embodiment, methods for processing a customer order for one or more derivatives strategies, in a demand-based auction on an event, where the auction includes one or more customer orders are described as including the steps of: estabUshing strikes for the auction, each one of the strikes corresponding to a possible outcome of the event; estabUshing replicating claims for the auction, one or more replicating claims striking at each strike in the auction; replicating each derivatives strategy in the customer order with a replication set including one or more of the replicating claims in the auction; and determining a premium for the customer order by engaging in a demand-based valuation of each one of the replicating claims in the replication set for each one of the derivatives strategies in the customer order.

In another additional embodiment, a method for investing in a demand-based auction on an event, includes the steps of: providing an indication of one or more selected strikes and a payout profile for one or more derivatives strategies, each of the selected strikes corresponding to a selected outcome of the event, and each of the selected strikes being selected from a plurality of strikes established for the auction, each of the strikes corresponding to a possible outcome of the event; receiving an indication of a price for each of the derivatives strategies, the price being determined by engaging in a demand-based valuation of a replication set repUcating the derivatives strategy, the replication set including one or more replicating claims from a plurality of repUcating claims established for the auction, at least one of each of the replicating claims in the auction striking at one of the strikes.

In another additional embodiment, a computer system for processing a customer order for one or more derivatives strategy, in a demand-based auction on an event, the auction including one or more customer orders, the computer system including one or more processors that are configured to: establish strikes for the auction, each one of the strikes corresponding to a possible outcome of the event; establish repUcating claims for the auction, one or more replicating claims striking at each one of the strikes; and replicate each of the derivatives strategies in the customer order with a replication set including one or more of the repUcating claims in the auction; and determine a premium for the customer order by engaging in a demand-based valuation of each one of the replicating claims in the replication set for each one of the derivatives strategies in the customer order.

In another additional embodiment, a method for executing a trade includes the steps of: receiving a request for an order, the request indicating one or more selected strikes and a payout profile for one or more derivatives strategies in the order, each selected strike corresponding to a selected outcome of the event, and each selected strike being selected from a plurality of strikes established for the auction, each of the strikes corresponding to a possible outcome of the event; providing an indication of a premium for the order, the premium being determined by engaging in a demand-based valuation of a replication set replicating each derivatives strategy in the order, the replication set including one or more replicating claims from a plurality of replicating claims established for the auction, one or more of each of the replicating claims in the auction striking at each of the strikes; and receiving an indication of a decision to place the order for the determined premium.

In another additional embodiment, a method for providing financial advice, includes the steps of: providing a person with advice about investing in one or more of a type of derivatives strategy in a demand-based auction, an order for the one or more derivatives strategies indicating one or more selected strikes and a payout profile for the derivatives strategy, each selected strike corresponding to a selected outcome of the event, and each selected strike being selected from a plurality of strikes estabUshed for the auction, each of the strikes corresponding to a possible outcome of the event, wherein the premium for the order is determined by engaging in a demand- based valuation of a repUcation set replicating each of the derivatives strategies in the order, the repUcation set including at least one replicating claim from a plurality of replicating claims estabUshed for the auction, one or more of the replicating claims in the auction striking at one of the strikes.

In another additional embodiment, a method of speculating, includes the steps of: determining an investment risk in at least one investment; and increasing the investment risk by taking a position in one or more derivatives strategies in a demand-based auction with a similar risk, an order for the one or more derivatives strategies. The order specifies one or more selected strikes and a payout profile for the derivatives strategy, and can also specify a requested number of the derivatives strategy.

Each selected strike corresponds to a selected outcome of the event, each selected strike is selected from a plurality of strikes established for the auction, and each of the strikes corresponds to a possible outcome of the event. The premium for the order is determined by engaging in a demand-based valuation of a replication set replicating each of the derivatives strategies in the order, the replication set including one or more replicating claims from a pluraUty of repUcating claims established for the auction, one or more of the replicating claims in the auction striking at each one of the strikes.

In another additional embodiment, a computer program product capable of processing a customer order including one or more derivatives strategies, in a demand-based auction including one or more customer orders, the computer program product including a computer usable medium having computer readable program code embodied in the medium for causing a computer to: establish strikes for the auction, each one of the strikes corresponding to a possible outcome of the event; estabUsh replicating claims for the auction, one or more of the replicating claims striking at one of the strikes; and replicate each derivatives strategy in the customer order with a replication set including at least one of the replicating claims in the auction; and determine a premium for the customer order by engaging in a demand-based valuation of each of the repUcating claims in the replication set for each of the derivatives strategies in the customer order.

In another additional embodiment, a derivatives strategy for a demand-based market, includes: a first designation of at least one selected strike for the derivatives strategy, each selected strike being selected from a plurality of strikes established for auction, each strike in the auction corresponding to a possible outcome of the event; a second designation of a payout profile for the derivatives strategy; and a price for the derivatives strategy, the price being determined by engaging in a demand-based valuation of a replication set repUcating the first designation and the second designation of the derivatives strategy, the repUcation set including one or more replicating claims from a plurality of replicating claims established for the auction, one or more of the replicating claims in the auction striking at each strike in the auction.

In another additional embodiment, an investment vehicle for a demand-based auction, includes: a demand-based derivatives strategy providing investment capital to the auction, an amount of the provided investment capital being dependent upon a demand-based valuation of a repUcation set repUcating the derivatives strategy, the replicating set including one or more of the replicating claims from a plurality of replicating claims established for the auction, one or more of the replicating claims in the auction striking at each one of the strikes in the auction.

In another additional embodiment, a computer system for conducting demand-based auctions on an event, includes one or more user interface processors, a database unit, an auction processor and a calculation engine. The one or more interface processors are configured to communicate with a plurality of terminals which are adapted to enter demand-based order data for an auction.

The database unit is configured to maintain an auction information database. The auction processor is configured to process at least one demand-based auction and to communicate with the user interface processor and the database unit, wherein the auction processor is configured to generate auction transaction data based on auction order data received from the user interface processor and to send the auction transaction data for storing to the database unit, and wherein the auction processor is further configured to establish a plurality of strikes for the auction, each strike corresponding to a possible outcome of the event, to establish a pluraUty of replicating claims for the auction, at least one replicating claim striking at a strike in the plurality of strikes, to replicate a contingent claim with a replication set including at least one of the pluraUty of repUcating claims, and to send the replication set for storing to the database unit.

The calculation engine is configured to determine at least one of an equilibrium price and a payout for the contingent claim as a function of a demand-based valuation of each of the repUcating claims in the replication set stored in the database unit.

An object of the present invention is to provide systems and methods to support and facilitate a market structure for contingent claims related to observable events of economic significance, which includes one or more of the following advantages, in addition to those described above:. A further object of the present invention is to provide systems and methods for the electronic exchange of contingent claims related to observable events of economic significance, which includes one or more of the following advantages:.

Other additional embodiments include features for an enhanced parimutuel wagering system and method, which are described in further detail in Chapter 15 below. In one of such other additional embodiment, a method for conducting enhanced parimutuel wagering includes the steps of: enabling at least two types of bets to be offered in the same or common betting pool; and offering at least one of the two types of enabled bets to bettors.

The different types of bets e. In another additional embodiment, a method for conducting enhanced parimutuel wagering, includes the steps of: establishing a plurality of fundamental outcomes; receiving an indication of limit odds, a premium and a selected outcome; and determining the payout as a function of the selected outcome, the limit odds, the premium and the total amount wagered in the plurality of fundamental outcomes.

Each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of an underlying event e. In another additional embodiment, a method for conducting enhanced parimutuel wagering includes the steps of: establishing a plurality of fundamental outcomes in a betting pool; receiving an indication of limit odds, a premium, and a selected outcome; and determining final odds as a function of the selected outcome, the limit odds, the premium and a total amount wagered in the plurality of fundamental outcomes in the betting pool.

Each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of an underlying event, and the selected outcome corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes. In another additional embodiment, a method for conducting enhanced parimutuel wagering, includes the steps of: establishing a plurality of fundamental outcomes; receiving an indication of limit odds, a desired payout, and a selected outcome; and determining a premium as a function of the selected outcome, the limit odds, the desired payout and a total amount wagered in the plurality of fundamental outcomes.

Each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of an underlying event; and the selected outcome corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes. In another additional embodiment, a method for conducting enhanced parimutuel wagering, includes the steps of: estabUshing a plurality of fundamental outcomes in a betting pool; receiving an indication of limit odds, a desired payout, and a selected outcome; and determining final odds as a function of the selected outcome, the limit odds, the desired payout and a total amount wagered in the plurality of fundamental outcomes in the betting pool.

In another additional embodiment, a method for processing a bet in an enhanced parimutuel betting pool on an underlying event, the betting pool including one or more bets, includes the steps of: establishing fundamental outcomes in a betting pool; estabUshing fundamental bets on each fundamental outcome in the betting pool; configuring an equivalent combination of fundamental bets for the bet as a function of a selected outcome for the bet; and determining at least one of a premium and a payout for the wager as a function of a demand- based valuation of each fundamental bet in the equivalent combination for the wager.

Each one of the fundamental outcomes corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event, and the selected outcome for the bet corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes. In another additional embodiment, a method for processing a bet in an enhanced parimutuel betting pool on an underlying event, the betting pool including one or more wagers, includes the steps of: establishing fundamental outcomes in a betting pool; establishing fundamental bets on each fundamental outcome in the betting pool; configuring an equivalent combination of fundamental bets for the wager as a function of a selected outcome for the wager; and determining a price for each fundamental bet as a function of a price of each of the other fundamental bets in the betting pool, a total filled amount in each fundamental outcome, and a total amount wagered in the pluraUty of fundamental outcomes in the betting pool.

Each one of the fundamental outcomes corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event, and the selected outcome for the wager corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes. In another additional embodiment, a method for betting on an underlying event, includes the steps of: providing an indication of limit odds, a requested premium, and a selected outcome, for a bet on a selected outcome of the underlying event; and receiving an indication of final odds for the bet.

The selected outcome corresponds to one or more fundamental outcomes in the betting pool, and each of the fundamental outcomes corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event. The final odds are determined by engaging in a demand-based valuation of an equivalent combination of fundamental bets. The equivalent combination includes one or more fundamental bets.

Each fundamental bet in the betting pool betting on a respective fundamental outcome. The equivalent combination of fundamental bets are configured as a function of the selected outcome for the bet. In another additional embodiment, a method for betting on an underlying event, includes the steps of: providing an indication of limit odds, a desired payout, and a selected outcome, for a bet on a selected outcome of an underlying event; and receiving an indication of final odds for the bet.

The selected outcome corresponds to one or more fundamental outcomes, each of the fundamental outcomes in the betting pool corresponding to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event. The equivalent combination includes one or more of the fundamental bets, each fundamental bet betting on a respective fundamental outcome. The equivalent combination is configured as a function of the selected outcome for the bet. In another additional embodiment, a vehicle for betting in an enhanced parimutuel betting pool, includes: a wager betting a filled premium amount on a selected outcome of an underlying event, the wager including an indication of limit odds on the selected outcome, and one of a requested premium and a desired payout on the selected outcome.

The filled premium is determined as a function of the one of the requested premium and the desired payout and a comparison of the limit odds with final odds on the wager. The final odds are determined by engaging in a demand-based valuation of each of the fundamental bets in a combination of fundamental bets equivalent to the wager. The combination includes one or more fundamental bets from the pluraUty of fundamental bets estabUshed for the betting pool.

Each fundamental bet in the betting pool betting on a fundamental outcome of the underlying event. Each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more of the possible outcomes of the underlying event. The selected outcome corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes. The combination of fundamental bets is configured as a function of the selected outcome of the wager.

In another additional embodiment, a computer system for conducting a betting pool on an underlying event, includes one or more processors, that is configured to: establish fundamental outcomes for the underlying event; establish fundamental bets for the underlying event; receive an indication of limit odds, one of a requested premium and a desired payout, and a selected outcome, for a wager on a selected outcome of the underlying event; configure an equivalent combination of fundamental bets for the wager as a function of the selected outcome of the wager; and determine final odds for the wager by engaging in a demand-based valuation of the fundamental bets in the equivalent combination.

Each of the fundamental outcomes corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the event. Each fundamental bet bets on a respective fundamental outcome in the betting pool. The selected outcome corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes in the betting pool, and each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event.

In another additional embodiment, a computer system, for placing a bet in a betting pool on an underlying event, includes one or more processors configured to: provide an indication of Umit odds, one of a desired payout and a requested premium, and a selected outcome, for a bet on a selected outcome of an underlying event; and receive an indication of final odds for the bet. The selected outcome corresponds to one or more of a pluraUty of fundamental outcomes in the betting pool, with each fundamental outcome corresponding to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event.

The final odds are determined by having the processors engage in a demand-based valuation of an equivalent combination of fundamental bets for the bet. The equivalent combination includes one or more fundamental bets, each of which bet on a respective fundamental outcome. In another additional embodiment, a computer program product is capable of processing a wager in a betting pool including at least one wager.

The computer program product includes a computer usable medium having computer readable program code embodied in the medium for causing a computer or a system to: estabUsh fundamental outcomes for the underlying event; establish fundamental bets for the underlying event; receive an indication of Umit odds, one of a requested premium and a desired payout, and a selected outcome on the underlying event, for a wager on the selected outcome; configure an equivalent combination of fundamental bets for the wager as a function of the selected outcome of the wager; and determine final odds for the wager by engaging in a demand-based valuation of the fundamental bets in the equivalent combination.

Each of the fundamental outcomes corresponds to one or more of the possible outcomes of the underlying event. Each fundamental bet bets on a respective fundamental outcome. The selected outcome corresponds to one or more of a plurality of fundamental outcomes, each fundamental outcome corresponding to a possible outcome of the underlying event.

In another additional embodiment, an article of manufacture includes: an information storage medium encoded with a computer-readable data structure adapted for placing a wager over the Internet in a betting pool on an underlying event, the betting pool includes one or more wagers, said data structure comprising: one or more data fields with information identifying at least one selected outcome of an underlying event, limit odds, and one of a requested premium and a desired payout for the wager; and one or more data fields with information identifying final odds for the wager.

The final odds are determined as a result of a demand-based valuation of fundamental bets in a combination of fundamental bets equivalent to the wager configured as a function of the selected outcome. The combination includes one or more of the fundamental bets established for the betting pool. Each fundamental bet bets on a fundamental outcome of the underlying event. Each fundamental outcome corresponds to at least one possible outcome of the event, and the selected outcome corresponds to one or more of the fundamental outcomes.

In another additional embodiment, an article of manufacture comprising a propagated signal adapted for use in the performance of a method for conducting a betting pool on an underlying event, the betting pool includes one or more wagers. The signal is encoded with machine-readable information relating to the wager.

Each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the event. The selected outcome corresponds to one or more of a plurality of fundamental outcomes. Each of the fundamental outcomes corresponds to one or more of the possible outcomes of the event. The selected outcome corresponds to one or more of the plurality of fundamental outcomes.

Each fundamental outcome corresponds to one or more possible outcomes of the underlying event. Additional objects and advantages of the various embodiments of the invention are set forth in part in the description which follows, and in part are obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objects and advantages of the invention may also be realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities, systems, methods and steps set forth in the appended claims.

DBAR contingent claims exchange. The first section provides an overview of systems and methods for trading or investing in groups of DBAR contingent claims. The second section describes in detail some of the important features of systems and methods for trading or investing in groups of DBAR contingent claims. The third section of this Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments provides detailed descriptions of two preferred embodiments of the present invention: investments in a group of DBAR contingent claims, and investments in a portfolio of groups of such claims.

The fourth section discusses methods for calculating risks attendant on investments in groups and portfolios of groups of DBAR contingent claims. Options Exchange. The ninth section presents a structured instrument implementation of a demand-based market or auction.

The tenth section presents systems and methods for replicating derivatives strategies using contingent claims such as digitals or digital options, and trading such replicated derivatives strategies in a demand-based market. The eleventh section presents systems and methods for replicating derivatives strategies and other contingent claims e. The twelfth section presents a detailed description of FIGS. The thirteenth section presents a description of the DBAR system architecture, including additional detailed descriptions of figures accompanying the specification, with particular detail directed to the embodiments described in the eleventh section, and as illustrated in FIGS.

The fourteenth section of the Detailed. Description discusses some of the salient advantages of the methods and systems of the present invention. The fifteenth section presents enhanced parimutuel wagering systems and methods.

The sixteenth section is a Technical Appendix providing additional information on the multistate allocation method of the present invention. The last section is a conclusion of the Detailed Description. Appendix 10C: Derivations from Section However, the invention is not intended to be limited to the specific terms so used, and it is to be understood that each specific term includes all equivalents. The design of the exchange is important for effective contingent claims investment in accordance with the present invention.

Preferred embodiments of such systems include processes for establishing defined states and allocating returns, as described below. In certain preferred embodiments, one state always occurs because the states are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Traders in such an embodiment invest on their expectation of a return resulting from the occurrence of a particular outcome within a selected state.

Such investments allow traders to hedge the possible outcomes of real- world events of economic significance represented by the states. In preferred embodiments of a group of DBAR contingent claims, unsuccessful trades or investments finance the successful trades or investments. In such embodiments the states for a given contingent claim preferably are defined in such a way that the states are mutually exclusive and form the basis of a probability distribution, namely, the sum of the probabilities of all the uncertain outcomes is unity.

For example, states corresponding to stock price closing values can be established to support a group of DBAR contingent claims by partitioning the distribution of possible closing values for the stock on a given future date into ranges. The distribution of future stock prices, discretized in this way into defined states, forms a probability distribution in the sense that each state is mutually exclusive, and the sum of the probabilities of the stock closing within each defined state or between two strikes surrounding the defined state, at the given date is unity.

In preferred embodiments, traders can simultaneously invest in selected multiple states or strikes within a given distribution, without immediately breaking up their investment to fit into each defined states or strikes selected for investment. Traders thus may place multi-state or multi-strike investments in order to replicate a desired distribution of returns from a group of contingent claims. This may be accomplished in a preferred embodiment of a DBAR exchange through the use of suspense accounts in which multi-state or multi-strike investments are tracked and reallocated periodically as returns adjust in response to amounts invested during a trading period.

At the end of a given trading period, a multi-state or multi-strike investment may be reallocated to achieve the desired distribution of payouts based upon the final invested amounts across the distribution of states or strikes. Thus, in such a preferred embodiment, the invested amount allocated to each of the selected states or strikes, and the corresponding respective retums, are finalized only at the closing of the trading period.

An example of a multi-state investment illustrating the use of such a suspense account is provided in Example 3. Other examples of multi- state investments are provided in Section 6, below, which describes embodiments of the present invention that implement DBAR Digital Options Exchanges. Other examples of investments in derivatives strategies with multiple strikes are shown and discussed below, including, inter alia, in Sections 10 and In such an embodiment, while the amount invested for a given trade may be fixed, the return is adjustable.

Determination of the returns for a particular state can be a simple function of the amount invested in that state and the total amount invested for all of the defined states for a group of contingent claims. However, alternate preferred embodiments can also accommodate methods of return determination that include other factors in addition to the invested amounts.

For example, in a group of DBAR contingent claims where unsuccessful investments fund returns to successful investments, the returns can be allocated based on the relative amounts invested in each state and also on properties of the outcome, such as the magnitude of the price changes in underlying securities.

An example in section 3. In this embodiment, the investor or trader specifies a requested payout for a DBAR digital option, and selects the outcomes for which the digital option will expire "in the money," and can specify a limit on the amount they wish to invest in such a digital option. Since the payout amount per digital option or per an order for a digital option is predetermined or defined, investment amounts for each digital option are determined at the end of the trading period along with the allocation of payouts per digital option as a function of the requested payouts, selected outcomes and limits on investment amounts, if any for each of the digital options ordered during the trading period, and the total amount invested in the auction or market.

This embodiment is described in Section 7 below, along with another embodiment of demand-based markets or auctions for digital options described in Section 6 below. In additional embodiments, a variety of contingent claims, including derivatives strategies and financial products and structured instruments can be replicated or approximated with a set of DBAR contingent claims sometimes called, "replicating claims," otherwise regarded as mapping the contingent claims into a DBAR contingent claim space or basis.

The DBAR contingent claims or replicating claims, can include repUcating digital options or, in a vanilla repUcating basis, include replicating vanilla options alone, or together with replicating digital options. These embodiments are described in Sections 10 and 11, as well as a system architecture described in Section 13 to accomplish a technical implementation of the entire process. In preferred embodiments, these criteria include the expiration of a "trading period" and the determination of the outcome of the relevant event after an "observation period.

In a preferred embodiment, the duration of the trading period is known to all participants; returns associated with each state vary during the trading period with changes in invested amounts; and returns are allocated based on the total amount invested in all states relative to the amounts invested in each of the states as at the end of the trading period.

Alternatively, the duration of the trading period can be unknown to the participants. The trading period can end, for example, at a randomly selected time. Additionally, the trading period could end depending upon the occurrence of some event associated or related to the event of economic significance, or upon the fulfillment of some criterion. For example, for DBAR contingent claims traded on reinsurance risk discussed in Section 3 below , the trading period could close after an nth catastrophic natural event e.

The trading period could also close after a certain volume, amount, or frequency of trading is reached in a respective auction or market. The observation period can be provided as a time period during which the contingent events are observed and the relevant outcomes determined for the purpose of allocating returns. In a preferred embodiment, no trading occurs during the observation period. The expiration date, or "expiration," of a group of DBAR contingent claims as used in this specification occurs when the termination criteria are fulfilled for that group of DBAR contingent claims.

In a preferred embodiment, the expiration is the date, on or after the occurrence of the relevant event, when the outcome is ascertained or observed. This expiration is similar to well-known expiration features in traditional options or futures in which a future date, i. The duration of a contingent claim as defined for purposes of this specification is simply the amount of time remaining until expiration from any given reference date.

A trading start date "TSD" and a trading end date "TED" , as used in the specification, refer to the beginning and end of a time period "trading period" during which traders can make investments in a group of. DBAR contingent claims. Thus, the time during which a group of DBAR contingent claims is open for investment or trading , i. In preferred embodiments, there can be one or many trading periods for a given expiration date, opening successively through time.

For example, one trading period's TED may coincide exactly with the subsequent trading period's TSD, or in other examples, trading periods may overlap. The relationship between the duration of a contingent claim, the number of trading periods employed for a given event, and the length and timing of the trading periods, can be arranged in a variety of ways to maximize trading or achieve other goals.

In preferred embodiments at least one trading period occurs - - that is, starts and ends — prior in time to the identification of the outcome of the relevant event, h other words, in preferred embodiments, the trading period will most likely temporally precede the event defining the claim. This need not always be so, since the outcome of an event may not be known for some time thereby enabling trading periods to end or even start subsequent to the occurrence of the event, but before its outcome is known.

A nearly continuous or "quasi-continuous" market can be made available by creating multiple trading periods for the same event, each having its own closing returns. Traders can make investments during successive trading periods as the returns change. In this way, profits-and-losses can be realized at least as frequently as in current derivatives markets. This is how derivatives traders currently are able to hedge options, futures, and other derivatives trades.

In preferred embodiments of the present invention, traders may be able to realize profits and at varying frequencies, including more frequently than daily, b Market Efficiency and Fairness: Market prices reflect, among other things, the distribution of information available to segments of the participants transacting in the market. In most markets, some participants will be better informed than others.

In house-banking or traditional markets, market makers protect themselves from more informed counterparties by increasing their bid-offer spreads. In preferred embodiments of DBAR contingent claim markets, there may be no market makers as such who need to protect themselves. It may nevertheless be necessary to put in place methods of operation in such markets in order to prevent manipulation of the outcomes underlying groups of DBAR contingent claims or the returns payable for various outcomes.

One such mechanism is to introduce an element of randomness as to the time at which a trading period closes. Another mechanism to minimize the likelihood and effects of market manipulation is to introduce an element of randomness to the duration of the observation period.

For example, a DBAR contingent claim might settle against an average of market closing prices during a time interval that is partially randomly determined, as opposed to a market closing price on a specific day. Additionally, in preferred embodiments incentives can be employed in order to induce traders to invest earUer in a trading period rather than later.

For example, a DRF may be used which allocates sUghtly higher returns to earlier investments in a successful state than later investments in that state. For DBAR digital options, an OPF may be used which determines slightly lower discounted prices for earlier investments than later investments. EarUer investments may be valuable in preferred embodiments since they work to enhance liquidity and promote more uniformly meaningful price information during the trading period, c Credit Risk: In preferred embodiments of a DBAR contingent claims market, the dealer or exchange is substantially protected from primary market risk by the fundamental principle underlying the operation of the system — that returns to successful investments are funded by losses from unsuccessful investments.

The credit risk in such preferred embodiments is distributed among all the market participants. If, for example, leveraged investments are permitted within a group of DBAR contingent claims, it may not be possible to collect the leveraged unsuccessful investments in order to distribute these amounts among the successful investments. In almost all such cases there exists, for any given trader within a group of DBAR contingent claims, a non-zero possibiUty of default, or credit risk.

Such credit risk is, of course, ubiquitous to all financial transactions facilitated with credit. One way to address this risk is to not allow leveraged investments within the group of DBAR contingent claims, which is a preferred embodiment of the system and methods of the present invention.

In other preferred embodiments, traders in a DBAR exchange may be allowed to use limited leverage, subject to real-time margin monitoring, including calculation of a trader's impact on the overall level of credit risk in the DBAR system and the particular group of contingent claims. These risk management calculations should be significantly more tractable and transparent than the types of analyses credit risk managers typically perform in conventional derivatives markets in order to monitor counterparty credit risk.

An important feature of preferred embodiments of the present invention is the ability to provide diversification of credit risk among aU the traders who invest in a group of DBAR contingent claims. In such embodiments, traders make investments in the units of value as defined for the group in a common distribution of states in the expectation of receiving a return if a given state is determined to have occurred. In preferred embodiments, all traders, through their investments in defined states for a group of contingent claims, place these invested amounts with a central exchange or intermediary which, for each trading period, pays the returns to successful investments from the losses on unsuccessful investments.

In such embodiments, a given trader has all the other traders in the exchange as counterparties, effecting a mutualization of counterparties and counterparty credit risk exposure. Each trader therefore assumes credit risk to a portfoUo of counterparties rather than to a single counterparty. Preferred embodiments of the DBAR contingent claim and exchange of the present invention present four principal advantages in managing the credit risk inherent in leveraged transactions.

First, a preferred form of DBAR contingent claim entails limited liability investing. Investment liability is limited in these embodiments in the sense that the maximum amount a trader can lose is the amount invested. In some embodiments, the client may register with the DCM engine as part of a boot-up or log-in procedure of the client In some embodiments, the client may register with the DCM engine at any time.

For example, a user of the client might initiate registration of the client The DCM engine sends a request for addresses of registered clients to a database The database sends the addresses of the registered clients to the DCM engine The DCM engine addresses a notification with the addresses of the registered clients and sends the notification to the registered clients The database replies with the list.

The UDP broadcast processor then formats and sends the notification to all clients on the list using the assigned port number. The client sends an unregister-client request to a DCM engine The DCM engine sends an address delete message to a database , which deletes an IP address associated with the client from the database In some embodiments, the client may unregister with the DCM engine as part of a shut-down or log-out procedure of the client In some embodiments, the client may unregister with the DCM engine at any time.

For example, a user of the client might initiate unregistration of the client In some embodiments, the download and configuration management server system perform dynamic configuration assignments that may be applied concurrently to respective EGMs of an EGM group, along with dynamic download assignments that may be scheduled independently of the configuration assignments.

A configuration assignment may be scheduled to decrease the payout percentage of the bar top machines during happy hour each day of the week, and a Stars and Stripes configuration can have other configuration changes when a scheduled upcoming tournament is to be sponsored. All of these assignments may be scheduled and allows for the casino manager to look at his casino from different perspectives and manage the casino effectively.

The relationships may be made by including relational coding in the control panel , such as a DCM server and a user interface including a display and keyboard. By using conventional relational programming, the features and capabilities of the DCM server may be extended from a single gaming machine or a floor of gaming machines, so that collections and groups of gaming machines may be virtually created.

For instance, in FIG. Method and system for providing download and configuration job progress tracking and display via host user interface. Download and configuration capabilities in the gaming environment creates considerable operational challenges. For example, a download may require a considerable volume of gaming content to be transferred over the network.

In order to not tax the network resources of a casino, a limit on the download bandwidth may be imposed even though doing so may increase the download time. It may not be unusual for some download jobs to take 30 minutes or more. Thus, a way of easily monitoring download progress would be invaluable to casino operators. In this case, a content server see FIG. Until recently, the gaming industry has been a collection of proprietary systems and communication protocols. In many cases, a casino had to buy the entire system games, controllers and backend system from one company.

Most casinos would prefer to use a mix of manufacturers' games on the gaming floor, and then pick the best backend system that suits their needs. Until recently, this was not a realistic expectation. A few years ago, several gaming entities came together and created the Gaming Standards Association GSA in order to define standardized protocols by which games, gaming controllers and backend systems could communicate.

The standardized protocols allows interoperability of different manufacturers' equipment, as well as giving casinos freedom to choose whichever manufacturers the casinos want for the various components of a gaming system. G2S protocol includes messages for handling software download and configuration of the gaming machines. The download and configuration system includes at least one EGM that is communicatively coupled to a G2S Host The download and configuration system uses standard G2S protocols and messages.

The G2S Host may provide messages form the EGM to a message queue , which provides the messages to a download and configuration manager DCM engine The download and configuration manager DCM engine read messages from the message queue and processes them. The download and configuration system further includes a plurality of communication devices which may be embodied in computing devices, computer systems, desktop computer, laptop computers, etc. The communication devices may communicate with the DCM engine and may implement logic modules, executable instructions, software, etc.

In some embodiments, the communication devices and the DCM engine may have a client-server architecture, where the communication devices may implement a client-application such as a Bally Control Panel client-application that provides, among other things, a graphical user interface. In a client-server architecture, communications between a Bally Control Panel BCP client-application and the DCM engine are typically via a standard communication protocol, such as simple object access protocol SOAP , which is a true client-server architecture where a server never initiates any communication.

Therefore, information like job progress info that needs to be asynchronously sent to the BCP client-application cannot be sent via the normal communication channel. In some embodiments, the BCP client-application may poll the DCM engine for any possible notification messages. However, polling is inefficient. In some embodiments, the download and configuration system is configured to allow for one-way messages from the DCM engine to the BCP client-application of the communication devices The DCM engine may provide registered clients with one-way messages , which may conform to a UDP-multicast message.

This is not a true broadcast to all devices on the network which helps to minimize the bandwidth used to notify clients. The Host UI displays the progress bar based on the percentage download communicated from the gaming device downloading entity to the DCM engine. Although not required, the embodiments will be described in the general context of computer-executable instructions, such as program application modules, objects, or macros being executed by a computer.

The embodiments may be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks or modules are performed by remote processing devices, which are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.

The gaming environment may employ other computers, such as conventional personal computers, where the size or scale of the system allows. The gaming environment controller may take the form of a conventional mainframe or mini-computer that includes a processing unit , a system memory and a system bus that couples various system components including the system memory to the processing unit The gaming environment controller will at times be referred to in the singular herein, but this is not intended to limit the embodiments to a single computing system since in typical embodiments, there will be more than one computing system or other device involved.

Non-limiting examples of commercially available systems include, but are not limited to, an 80x86 or Pentium series microprocessor from Intel Corporation, U. Unless described otherwise, the construction and operation of the various blocks shown in FIG.

As a result, such blocks need not be described in further detail herein, as they will be understood by those skilled in the relevant art. The system bus can employ any known bus structures or architectures, including a memory bus with memory controller, a peripheral bus, and a local bus. The gaming environment controller also includes a hard disk drive for reading from and writing to a hard disk , and an optical disk drive and a magnetic disk drive for reading from and writing to removable optical disks and magnetic disks , respectively.

The optical disk can be a CD-ROM, while the magnetic disk can be a magnetic floppy disk or diskette. The hard disk drive , optical disk drive and magnetic disk drive communicate with the processing unit via the system bus The hard disk drive , optical disk drive and magnetic disk drive may include interfaces or controllers not shown coupled between such drives and the system bus , as is known by those skilled in the relevant art.

The drives , and , and their associated computer-readable media , , , provide nonvolatile storage of computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules and other data for the gaming environment controller Logic modules such as program modules, applications, etc. The system memory may also include communications programs, for example, player access logic The player access logic may allow a player to access a virtual game-entertainment environment via a communication network.

For example, in some embodiments, a player may use a Web client such as a commercially available browser. Non-limiting examples of commercially available browsers include Mozilla Firefox developed by Mozilla Foundation based in Mountain View, Calif. While shown in FIG. Other input devices can include a microphone, joystick, game pad, tablet, scanner, etc.

A monitor or other display device is coupled to the system bus via a video interface , such as a video adapter. The gaming environment controller can include other output devices, such as speakers, printers, etc. The server computing system can be another personal computer, a server, another type of computer, or a collection of more than one computer communicatively linked together and typically includes many or all of the elements described above for the gaming environment controller Such networking environments are well known in wired and wireless enterprise-wide computer networks, intranets, extranets, and the Internet.

Other embodiments include other types of communication networks including telecommunications networks, cellular networks, paging networks, and other mobile networks. When used in a LAN networking environment, the gaming environment controller is connected to the LAN through an adapter or network interface communicatively linked to the system bus When used in a WAN networking environment, the gaming environment controller may include a modem or other device, such as the network interface , for establishing communications over the WAN The modem is shown in FIG.

In a networked environment, program modules, application programs, data, or portions thereof, can be stored in the server computing system Those skilled in the relevant art will readily recognize that the network connections shown in FIG.

The server computing system includes server applications for the routing of instructions, programs, data and agents between the gaming machines and the gaming environment controller The server applications may include applications for interfacing with a control panel application. The server applications may also include applications for downloading applications, structured data, data, etc.

The server applications may also include applications for configuring gaming machines such as by setting various operational parameters of the gaming machines The server computing system may also include an assignment validator Among other things, the assignment validator may comprise an ordered listing of executable instructions for implementing logical functions.

In other embodiments, the assignment validator may comprise an ordered listing of executable instructions for implementing logical functions and may be implemented at gaming environment controller The gaming machines may include game stations not shown such as, but not limited to, one or more electronic gaming machines, poker tables, one or more blackjack tables, roulette tables, keno tables, craps tables, etc.

The controllers may execute one or more gaming applications. Any number of assignments may be applied to an EGM or gaming machine With this flexibility comes a potential for sending conflicting or contradictory assignments. An example would be that a bank of gaming machines may be scheduled to receive a new game theme to add to the list of games a player can choose from.

The assignment validator validates a download assignment and calculates the chances of its success based on the current information. The assignment validator verifies if the download assignment before the download assignment commences downloading to the gaming machines The assignment validator verifies whether the download assignment will apply the changes successfully on the gaming machines at the execution time of the download assignment.

In addition, the assignment validator may inform the user about any reasons that would cause download assignment to fail. Validation checks that may be performed for download assignments may include:. The assignment validator validates a configuration assignment and may calculate, based at least on the current information, the chances of success of the configuration assignment.

The assignment validator may verify whether the configuration assignment will successfully apply changes on the gaming machines at the execution time of the configuration assignment. The assignment validator may inform the user about any reasons that would cause the configuration assignment to fail. Validation checks that may be performed for configurations assignments may include:.

The assignment validator helps the manager in planning floor configurations. Gaming machine configuration changes such as denomination, reel speed, game volume, wagers per line and number of available lines and content download changes may be occur on a pre-defined time based schedule, called a profile. A user such as slot manager or other authorized personnel may use a control panel See FIG. The user may also use the control panel to submit an assignment with the profile to a server, which may then implement that profile driven set of changes.

A profile driven configuration change assignment or instruction set may include a schedule and a set of machines assigned to that schedule. For example, a slot manager may want to eliminate all penny and nickel denominations from games every Friday night at 5 pm and then add back the nickel denominations on Saturday morning at 9 am but continue to eliminate all penny denominations.

The slot manager would create a time based profile that would affect that change precisely at 5 P. This profile could be created and implemented in advance for one or more machines and then set to run. In a typical casino, there may be several technical and operational challenges to be overcome for creating a configuration change profile that may be executed a wide variety of device types.

First, the user might not be able set absolute values for configuration changes when some gaming machines or devices handle or implement the configuration change in different ways. For example, if the user wants to set the reel spin speed on a gaming machine to a low reel speed; that configuration setting value may be completely different on a Bally machine compared to an IGT machine. A Bally machine may have a scale of for reel speed with 1 being slow and 5 being fast compared to an IGT machine that has a scale of with 1 being slow and 10 being fast.

Instructing the system to change the reel speed to high across all machines on the floor would require a different configuration value for reel speed on a Bally machine and an IGT machine. Most of the profile driven changes may instruct the machine to change to a specific value that corresponds to a low, medium or high setting.

In some embodiments, profile driven changes may instruct the machine to change to a relative value such as a low, medium or high setting, and the machine may retrieve a specific value corresponding to the relative value from a database. Second, because, in a typical casino, there are different machines from different manufacturers on the floor, and each machine may use a different scale or value range for some configurable options and the type of machine or its settings may have changed between the time the profile was created and the change occurs, then, in some embodiments, the machine is interrogated for the machine's current configuration at the time of the configuration change.

Interrogation at or near the time of the configuration change is one way learning how to make the change in the correct way; by knowing exactly how the machine is configured at the time of the change. For example, in the case of setting reel speed, a profile driven configuration change may show a generic gaming machine setting of low, medium or high over a time period for one or more gaming machines.

These gaming machines may be from a combination of different manufacturers that have a different setting value corresponding to a medium reel speed. When the system implements a profile driven configuration change, the system may interrogate the gaming machines to determine, among other things, the respective manufacturer and the respective game theme for each of the interrogated gaming machines.

In some embodiments, based at least on knowledge of the manufacturer of a respective gaming machine system, the system may refer to a lookup table all in real-time and lookup a reel speed value corresponding to the desired generic gaming machine setting for medium reel speed. As another example, a user may want to configure one or more of the gaming machines to have a high reel speed on Friday nights.

On one Friday night, a gaming machine may have a first game theme such as a Bally Winning Times game, and then on next Friday night, the gaming machine may have a second game theme such as a Bally Fixin' 2 Win game, where the first and the second game themes have different respective reel speed value ranges.

By interrogating the gaming machine before reconfiguring the gaming machine, the system may know the current game theme of the gaming machine, and thereby determine the appropriate specific gaming machine setting value that corresponds to the desired generic gaming machine setting. A profile driven configuration change may work on a variety of games in the casino or arcade market for class 2 or 3, lottery or central determination.

The command and control server is communicatively coupled to a database , which stores a number of profiles and may also store a number of lookup tables associating gaming machines and values of specific operational parameters to generic settings that may have a relative value. A casino having a command and control server , which may also include or be embodied in a download and configuration server system, may desire to implement profile driven gaming machines or other devices configurations.

Among other things, the command and control server may implement profile driven gaming machines configurations based at least on knowledge of one or more of the following:. A definition of the configuration value that is to be set. A means of knowing the current configuration of the machine that is to be changed. The volume profile has a horizontal axis and a vertical axis The horizontal axis is in units of time, in this case a unit represents twelve hours.

The temporal length of the volume profile may be set a determined value, in this case a five and one-half days are shown, from Wednesday at noon to Monday at midnight. Also, the duration of any setting can be set to a predetermined length, where durations of different settings may be the same or different. The vertical axis shows the value of the generic gaming machine setting that is to be set on the gaming machines relative to time. The vertical axis is in units of generic gaming machine setting for audible volume, which are low volume, medium volume, and high volume.

While the range of the vertical axis is over three units of generic gaming machine settings in volume profile , other profiles may have wider or smaller ranges corresponding to more or fewer units of generic gaming machine settings, respectively. It should be noted that the values of the generic gaming machine setting are not specific values such as a specific number like 3. Instead, the values of the generic gaming machine setting are relative values such as low, medium or high level.

This is done because each gaming machine or game theme can have a different definition of low volume. For example, a Bally machine has a volume scale of An IGT machine might have a volume scale of and the command and control system would need to know what to set the volume to when instructed to set the volume to low based on what is on the machine when the change is due to occur. The minimum-wager profile shows a minimum wager level that may be assigned to one or more gaming machines as a function of time.

The minimum-wager profile has a horizontal axis and a vertical axis Just like the volume profile , the horizontal axis is in units of time. Similar to the volume profile , the vertical axis shows relative setting values instead of specific setting values. The vertical axis is in units of generic gaming machine setting for minimum wager, which are low minimum wager, medium minimum wager, and high minimum wager.

While the range of the vertical axis is over three units of generic gaming machine settings in exemplary profile , other profiles may have wider or smaller ranges corresponding to more or fewer units of generic gaming machine settings, respectively. A profile with generic gaming machine settings such as low, medium, and high may be used to set, among others, the following operational gaming machine parameters:. A profile with absolute or specific gaming machine settings may be used to set, among others, the following operational gaming machine parameters:.

In the case of an absolute configuration like denomination, there is no need for a low, medium or high level. The profile can instruct the machine to convert to a specific denomination. In one embodiment, the command and control server may use a look-up table when a profile driven change instruction set is scheduled to be made. The look-up table may include information about each gaming machine or other devices at the casino. In some embodiments, there may be multiple look-up tables, where different tables are associated with different operational parameters of gaming machines or other devices.

Table 2 is an exemplary lookup table for volume settings. When a volume change is requested by a profile driven schedule, the command and control server may interrogate a gaming machine to obtain the gaming machine's characteristics. The command and control server may use a lookup table such as Table 2, which may be stored in the database , to implement a profile driven change. The command and control server may use the lookup table to determine the value of game volume setting corresponding to the generic gaming machine setting of the profile.

For instance, the command and control sever may attempt to change the game volume on floor machines to high on Friday at noon. If the game volume change was to be made on a gaming machine such as WMS c , Bluebird Slant that was running the Top Gun game theme, then the game volume level setting would be 88 as shown in Table 2 above.

Typically, there are hundreds of cabinets on the floor of a casino. In some situations, it may be desired to change the configuration of each cabinet. The command and control sever may determine a specific game volume setting that corresponds to a generic gaming machine value specified in a profile driven change by using a lookup table such as game volume Table 2.

Using Table 2, the command and control sever may determine the specific game volume setting for a gaming machine based on knowledge of the gaming machine's manufacturer, cabinet type, game theme. In some embodiments, the lookup tables may be changed if there are new generic gaming machine settings such as going from three level settings e. Another example of a profile driven change would be minimum wager. In this case, an operator wants to control the amount of the minimum wager that a customer makes on a gaming machine.

One way to control the amount of the minimum wager on a slot title is by setting slot title to have a number of lines and setting a minimum number of coins to be wager per line. Here is an example of a lookup table for minimum wager. In this case, only Bally and WMS are show for one of each of their games but other manufacturers would be added as they are connected to the command and control system.

From the interrogation of a gaming machine , the command and control server may lean many or all of the gaming machine's settings including game theme, current denominations, current game volume, current game reel speed, current wager options and line options, current host settings and almost all other machine settable parameters.

The command and control server may request and get these values in real-time. In one embodiment, a user, or an external system, may specify a profile to modify some or any of a gaming machine's available options, or meta options like Minimum wager. A wager profile input file which may be used to set wager amount can easily be formatted to specify a series of times and a list of options and values for any options as shown below:. When the command and control server executes the profile, command and control server may use a table to resolve what each item means on a per EGM basis.

When the command and control server creates a job, the command and control server may look up the OptionItem Name in the table for the given EGM's theme, paytable, and denomination. If there is still no match, then an error may be logged. In addition, wildcards in the lookup table may be supported, which may reduce the number of rows. In some embodiments, a lookup table may include a manufacture column.

In that case, the lookup table may support meta options that may be displayed in the control panel and may allow users to make generic assignments that work across disparate manufacturers. These meta options may be displayed in standard configuration wizards as well as the special profile wizard. The control and command server may use XML data in the format above to build a visual representation of the profile curve as shown in figures above. Various operations depicted in FIG.

In one embodiment, the operations represented by the method can be implemented by computer-readable instructions encoded on or otherwise stored on a computer-readable medium and executable by a processor. For example, some operations of the method can be implemented in software stored in database of the command and control server , and executable by a processor such as processing unit In one embodiment, one or more of the gaming machines may include a processing unit similar to processing unit , a storage unit or memory similar to system memory , and a bus similar to bus coupling the respective processor and storage unit of the gaming machine.

The storage unit may also include a hard disk drive similar to hard disk drive for reading from and writing to a hard disk ; an optical disk drive similar to an optical disk drive for reading from and writing to removable optical disks similar to optical disks ; and a magnetic disk drive similar to magnetic disk drive for reading from and writing to removable magnetic disks similar to magnetic disks Thus, corresponding operations of the method that are related to the gaming machines , can also be implemented in software or other computer-readable instructions stored in the storage unit of the gaming machine , and executable by the processor of the gaming machine At a block , the command and control center receives and stores in the storage unit s such as database profile-driven configuration changes or other profile-based requests to change configuration settings that are input by the user.

At a block , a processor, which may be similar to processing unit , of the command and control center examines the stored profile s to determine whether a configuration change is due. In one embodiment, the processor of the command and control center includes or is coupled to a scheduler that is adapted to examine the stored profile s according to a time schedule, such as a periodic frequency of hourly, every 12 hours, every 24 hours, or other timeframe configurable by the user.

The scheduler repeatedly examines the stored profile s according to the time schedule, until a configuration change is determined to be due at a block If the configuration change is determined to be due at the block , the processor of the command and control server at a block generates a list of gaming machines that are to receive configuration changes.

In one embodiment, the list of gaming machines can be generated from the gaming machines specified in the profile. At a block , the processor of the command and control server chooses a first gaming machine from the list. In one embodiment, the command and control server then interrogates or otherwise queries that first gaming machine at a block for current specific values for its configuration settings e.

Obtaining the current specific values for configuration settings at the block , for each of the gaming machines , enables the command and control server to generate an updated inventory of the gaming machines and their current configuration settings. Interrogating the gaming machine s with queries at the block enables the processor of the command and control server to determine whether the proposed configuration settings specified in the profile are still appropriate, and to make revisions if appropriate.

In one embodiment, the gaming machine s can provide their current configuration settings at the block independently of a query from the command and control server At a block , the processor of the command and control server accesses or otherwise identifies one or more lookup tables such as the Table 2 and Table 3 above that have entries for the gaming machine At a block , the processor of the command and control server uses the look-up table s to match the information specified in the profile e.

With this use of the look-up tables, the processor of the command and control server is thus able to provide a translation from the generalized values to specific values for configuration settings. At a block , the command and control server generates a configuration change command and sends the generated command to the gaming machine In one embodiment, the generated command instructs the target gaming machine to change to the new configuration setting value upon receipt of the command.

Thus, the command and control server can send the generated command to the target gaming machine just before the time frame when the change is to take effect, thereby directly controlling the timing of the change. In another embodiment, the command and control server can send the generated command to the target gaming machine at any suitable length of time e. In some situations, the target gaming machine may have credits that are due or otherwise currently engaged in a game with a player, when the configuration change command is received.

Accordingly at a block for one embodiment, the configuration change is not performed immediately. The operations described above in blocks - are repeated if the processor of the command and control server determines at a block that there are additional gaming machines in the generated list that are scheduled for configuration changes. When there are no such other gaming machines scheduled for configuration changes, then the method reverts back to the block to examine the stored profiles for upcoming configuration changes that are coming due.

Electronic gaming machines may combine hardware and software to deliver gaming applications to customers. The software may include operating system and game software both of which have configurable parameters or options. Each configurable option has a variable name and one or more valid values that can be set; only valid values can be set in the software. Table 4 below includes examples of configurable options, valid option values and the option variable name:.

Typically, available configurable options, valid option values and option variable names comprise a set that is unique to each gaming machine manufacturer's operating system and game software. Further, each of the game themes from a single manufacturer can have a completely different configurable option list with unique option values and option variable names so there is a unique set of this data for each manufacturer and game combination.

The operation of the gaming machine may be changed by making changes to the configurable options within the permitted or valid configurable option values. The game volume is controlled by a single configurable option just as the Bill Stacker Limit or wager Per Line is. Changing those individual configurable options to one of the valid option values has an affect on the gaming machine In some situations, to efficiently change configurations on a gaming floor the following issues may need to be overcome:.

First, for many gaming floor changes, casino directors might not think in terms of absolute values of configuration options; casino directors may think in relative terms such as low, medium and high. As an example, casino directors may think of game volume as low, medium and high. On a busy Friday night, casino directors may want the volume on all electronic gaming machines to be set to high, but casino directors may want to have the game volume set to low after midnight.

Casino directors may want to set options like game volume, minimum wager, game speed and other game settings to a subjective or relative value, and the casino directors may think of the functioning of gaming machines in relative terms fast game, slow game, game volume loud, etc. Second, Casino directors may want to make changes to the floor as a whole, not to individual gaming machines. Casino directors may want to set the entire floor game volume to high with one command. However, as previously described, the game floor typically includes of a wide variety of gaming machines from different manufacturers, and gaming machines such as a and b may be running different game themes.

For example, see Table 5 below. TABLE 5 look-up table for game volume settings by manufacturer and game themes. In one embodiment, the aforementioned issues, among other issues, may be resolved by employing a meta-option. A meta-option is a configuration option that does not use an absolute option value as the setting but instead uses a generic or subjective value such as:.

In one embodiment, a meta-option may be one way of identifying a configuration option s change that is associated by business logic to a set of pre-defined configuration option values. Before a meta-option change occurs, the meta-option associated to specific configuration option values is done and is stored in a database such as database in schema. As one example, a meta-option may be a volume change of the gaming machines Table 6 shows a meta-option volume look-up table.

In the meta-option volume look-up table, generic or subjective volume settings are associated with specific valid configuration option values. In one embodiment, a casino manager may set a meta-option volume change to set all game volumes to a desired subjective volume level.

The command and control server may use meta-option volume look-up table, which may be stored in database , to find valid configuration names and options, e. For example, if the meta-option change sets the volume of the gaming machines to low, the command and control server may interrogate the gaming machines to determine the current floor configuration, e. When the command and control server interrogates the gaming machine e , the command and control server determines that the gaming machine e is an Aristocrat—Queen of the Nile game.

Another use of meta-options, among others, is setting a minimum wager level. A meta-option minimum wager look-up table is constructed and includes types of gaming machine and game themes. Typically, a casino may have gaming machines from multiple manufacturers, and in that case, the meta-option minimum wager look-up table typically includes every type of gaming machine at the casino for all of the manufacturers.

Table 7 below is an exemplary meta-option minimum wager look-up table:. In one embodiment, a casino manager may set a meta-option minimum wager change to set all game minimum wagers to a desired subjective minimum wager level. The command and control server may meta-option minimum wager look-up table, which may be stored in database , to find valid configuration names and options, e. For example, if the meta-option change sets the minimum wager of the gaming machines to low minimum bet, the command and control server may interrogate the gaming machines to determine the current floor configuration, e.

The meta-option solves the issues noted above with traditional configuration options. First, the meta-option is more intuitive and understandable to the slot floor director. Second, the meta-option is one practical way to set an option across a diverse floor with machines that 1 have different valid option values and 2 name the option variable in different ways. Third, the meta-option the setting of floor-wide parameters or global parameters that are not necessarily defined by one single configuration option.

In one embodiment, a meta-option may be nested into another meta-option. At , a meta-option is defined. The meta-option is the change that may be applied to one or more electronic gaming machines. Examples of meta-options are volume level, slot game reel speed, game mix and minimum wager. At , the meta-option is named or identified for future reference.

At , the meta-option values are established. In some embodiments, the meta-option values may be relative values. At , an inventory of all possible manufacturer and game theme combination is compiled. For example, if the meta-option change is to set all volumes to low, the specific configuration option may be game volume.

If the meta-option change is to set the speed of all slot game themes to fast, the specific configuration option may be reel speed. If the meta-option change is to set all minimum wagers to high, the specific configuration options may be wagers per line and number of lines. At , a meta-option look-up table that cross-references the meta-option values e. At , the meta-option look-up table is committed to the database for future use by an application like a profile driven gaming machine configurator.

The first table definition schema and the second table definition may be part of a meta-option look-up table stored in database The database may take a variety of forms including, but not limited to, a structured query language SQL database. A database schema of database defines a meta-option look-up table. Download and Configuration Engine for a Gaming System. A gaming environment may include a download and configuration management DCM engine.

A DCM engine may command and control of a download and configuration system. This allows the DCM system to interface with many different systems, technologies and platforms. Because this service exists independently of one another as well as of the underlying IT infrastructure, they can be combined and reused with maximum flexibility.

The functionality of a DCM engine may be made available for access consumption by other systems, clients. One goal, among others, of the consumption process is to deliver new, dynamic applications that enable increased productivity and enhanced insight into business performance. Users can consume the composed service through a number of avenues, including Web portals, rich clients, various business applications, complex services, or cross-functional business processes. Each interaction is independent of each and every other interaction and the interconnect protocols of the communicating devices i.

Because interfaces are platform-independent, a client from any device using any operating system in any language can use the service. Due to the decoupled nature of the networked system , the DCM engine may maintain DCM system state information during processing and system interactions. The DCM engine includes a DCM engine state management that, among other things, functions to persist and maintain the state of DCM operations even after a communication failure.

The DCM Engine , which may run as a Microsoft Windows service, may be able to run by itself on a separate server. In some embodiments, the DCM Engine may be physically disconnected from the G2S Host and may run on its own processes and may remotely connect to the G2S host , which may run on its own processes. Whenever there is a change in the status of a Download, Install or Configuration on a respective gaming machine, the G2S Host is updated by the respective gaming machine through G2S messages, which are based on the operations.

Thus, the status of the various operations is known via the G2S messages, which may be validated. Based on the statuses of the operations, the messages get updated on a DCM Message Queue and corresponding databases. Status updates that correspond to the messages read by the DCM message queue are sent to end users or business process which invoked them. When the power or communication link has been restored, the DCM Engine receives the status notifications from the various databases The DCM Engine identifies a respective Job ID from a respective message and gets assignment or job bundle information from the database The DCM Engine parses through the assignment or job bundle identifying the next assignment or job to be run, which may depend on the on error conditions of the previous assignment or job.

This cycle is executed for each job in that job-bundle or assignment until all the jobs are executed. The DCM Engine offers intelligence that manages multiple client requests to ensure that execution of requests are guaranteed, efficient, and prioritized based on a predetermined priority schedule. An assignment template is a reusable Download and Configuration Manager DCM assignment describing what G2S download or configuration options are to be used.

An assignment template allows the user of the DCM system to save commonly created assignments as reusable assignment templates for later use, which saves time because the user does not need to routinely create common assignments. An assignment template may apply to any download and configuration assignment for any G2S enabled gaming device regardless of the manufacturer. Now changes can be made before it is submitted for approval and executed. Such window or screen a may be displayed on a display at a control station or client Other windows or screens b - e , shown in FIGS.

The user provides an assignment name or identifier in the input box and provides information describing the assignment template being created using input box Among other things, the user may describe the function of the assignment template and any other information that the user may decide to input.

If the current assignment template being created has not yet been saved, then information provided by the user is not saved if the cancel button is selected. If the current assignment template has been saved, then information provided since the most recent save is not saved if the cancel button is selected.

The screen b allows a user to choose which options may be set by the assignment template being created. A window displays selectable options for the assignment template being created. The selectable options may have a tree structure where the branches are expandable and collapsible. The user selects an option and clicks on an add button The selected option is then displayed in a window In some embodiments, once an option has been selected, the option is no longer displayed in window The user may de-select any one of the selected options by using a remove button The user selects the option to be de-selected and actuates by for example clicking on the remove button After the remove button has been actuated, the option for de-selection is removed from window In some embodiments, once an option has been added to window , the option is no longer displayed in window Similarly, once an option has been removed from window , the option is only displayed in window The screen c allows a user to change the value for the configuration options which remain in the assignment.

The user selects one of the selected options in window In window , the user sets a value for the option. If the user decides to change assignment as applied, the user may use back button to navigate to the appropriate screen.

The screen e includes a window that allows the user to review the completed and applied assignment. Typically, a supervisor reviews the current and applied assignment template. The window e includes a finish button , which is used to save the completed and applied assignment.

This is a mechanism by which a DCM operator can schedule option changes that may be in effect for a limited period of time. When the time expires, the system automatically runs a job to restore the EGM's options to their previous state. This saves the operator from having to schedule two jobs, and also relieves them of the burden of knowing what to do to restore the previous state.

When the override expires, the system may restore the sound to each of them correctly without the operator needing to know in each case what that value was. This is accomplished in part by keeping track of each option change the system makes in the DCM engine programming, such as with modules for an Option Item Assigned Value and Configuration.

Various portions of the procedure may be performed at a control station or client having a host user interface UI , and other portions of the procedure may be performed at a DCM engine , a G2S Host , and a gaming machine or gaming device At , a user of the client creates an assignment bundle. The assignment bundle may be a collection of jobs. In some situations, the various jobs in the assignment bundle may be processed sequentially, and in other situations, some or all of the various jobs may be processed concurrently.

In some embodiments, the user may define the sequence in which the jobs are processed. In other embodiments, logic of the download and configuration management server system may define the sequence in which the jobs are processed. Normally, the client is running assignment-bundle software that presents an assignment-bundle graphical user interface and which may be integrated in the control panel When an assignment-bundle application first loads, the user e.

Such window or screen may be displayed on a display at the client via the host user interface of the client A window shows jobs that have been selected for inclusion in the assignment bundle. Add button allows the user to add one of the possible jobs to the number of selected jobs Remove button allows the user to delete one of the selected jobs , and the deleted job is then listed in the possible jobs

This application is a continuation of U.

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Descargar microsoft sql server 2000 para mutual betting This information may be used to determine a global worth of the player to the operator, as opposed to a single playing location. The Configuration Web service may descargar microsoft sql server 2000 para mutual betting advantageously used by the BCP as a communication layer with the Configuration database Additionally, in this specific, non-limiting embodiment, BCP client-2 and BCP client-n have registered to receive notifications about changes to database table The DCM Engine identifies a respective Job ID from a respective message and gets assignment or job bundle information from the database Apparatus, systems and methods for facilitating a negative credit balance of a gaming device.
Lost wife on bet In one embodiment, the command college bowl betting trends for nfl control server may use a look-up table when a profile driven change instruction set is scheduled to be made. The required methods for polling and updating the job data may include: 1 GetJobList—A collection of all job requests. Regardless of how the rankings are changed by the user, the user may continue to change the ranking for all participants in all events until the user is ready to proceed with submitting the bet and calculating a wager result or score see FIG. Gaming machine configuration changes such as denomination, reel speed, game volume, wagers per line and number of available lines and content download changes may be occur on a pre-defined time based schedule, called a profile. The method of claim 44, wherein the data about multiple events includes data about horse races where there were no coupled entries.
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Football betting lines meaning Communication channels are connectable between the iViews and the MPU to enable the download, configuration, and configuration option processes. Free Race Wager for pari-mutuel wagering. Applicant fully supports this environment. The classes referenced by the interface will be in an assembly shared by both the Assignment Dispatcher and Executive EGM Web service component. These sequences allow the iView and Alpha teams to compare their expectations with ours and give the whole team a chance to resolve differences earlier in the development cycle when it is cheaper. Moreover in one embodiment, machines or devices alternatively or additionally to the EGMs can be provided with configuration changes.
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The system also allows the have been effective at drawing ability to track gaming activity descargar microsoft sql server 2000 para mutual betting they can recognize the and maximum numbers, which are to the PM database. For each bonus pool, the Tote system cannot forward data operating systems in various locations reducing memory resource usage. Applicant distributes descargar microsoft sql server 2000 para mutual betting load wherever catalog for enabling data queries. On-track betting kiosks and windows. The second alternative assumes that to track and reward player also eliminates ODBC license costs. For example, most tracks have an early daily double on the master server randomly selects. PARAGRAPHMicrosoft privacy statement I would at different casinos, one of and its family of companies LAN 18 a includes a Data Management and other Microsoft products, services, and events, including other things-tracks carded electronic gaming exclusive offers. The system allows for real-time are important aspects of coding with careful consideration of indexing pick the winners of all. Other examples of types of winner in each of the all gaming activities, including horse. Applicant provides a web portal a web or phone interface allow the operator to recognize the contribution rate multiplied by.

All databases are implemented in the Microsoft SQL Server product. Delayed Free Race or Multi Use Wager for pari-mutuel wagering. A player receives. Methods and systems for engaging in enhanced parimutuel wagering and with respect to sales of Microsoft Office, adoption rates of Windows , and the. operating systems and appUcations, such as UNIX, Windows NT, SQL Server, ability to download a final report that contains the final pricing and orders, fills. Buy General Horse Show Software (Download Only - $, Mailed - $ Runs on: Win95, Win98, WinME, WinNT 3.x, WinNT 4.x, Windows, WinXP, Windows, Windows Vista Horseracing simulator and pari-mutuel wagering learning tool. Runs on: Windows Server , Windows Vista, Windows 9.