card index betting rules of 21

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Card index betting rules of 21 walt bettinger 401k maximum

Card index betting rules of 21

The first dealer is chosen by any agreed method, e. It is likely that deal and play were clockwise and that players staked a fixed amount before the deal, but the rules are vague on these points. The dealer deals two cards to each player, one at a time. He then asks each player, in rotation and beginning with eldest hand to his left , whether he wants to 'stand' or choose another card.

In the latter case, the dealer gives him the top card from the pack. The player may continue to ask for more cards until he reaches or exceeds a score of 21 or decides to stand. If he exceeds 21, he immediately throws his cards up and pays his stake to the dealer. The dealer may also draw additional cards and, on taking Vingt-un , receives double stakes from all who stand, except those who also have 21, with whom it is a drawn game.

When any opponent has 21, but the dealer does not, the dealer pays double stakes. If no-one has 21, the dealer pays a single stake to those whose score is higher than his and receives a single stake from those whose score is lower. Any player with the same score as the dealer neither pays nor receives a stake. If the dealer exceeds 21, he pays all who have not 'thrown up' their cards. The first player in rotational order who declares a Natural Vingt-Un takes over as the next dealer and earns a double stake from all players except those who also have one, who need not pay anything.

The new dealer reshuffles the pack and deals afresh. Otherwise, the cards must be dealt out in succession, the pone youngest hand collecting the cards that have been played and shuffling them until the pack is exhausted, whereupon the same dealer re-deals. The game is played with a French-suited pack of 52 cards. Cards are worth their nominal value except for the ace which scores 1 or 11 points at the player's discretion and court cards which are worth ten points each.

The first banker or banquier is chosen by lot. Punters joueurs place their stakes; usually a maximum is agreed. The banquier shuffles the cards, offers them to his left for cutting and then deals two to each player, one at a time. In turn each player may say "I'll keep them" je m'y tiens or "card" carte depending on the strength of his cards. Once a player sticks i. A punter who busts gives the banker his stake and puts his cards to one side. If the banquier goes bust, he pays each surviving player the amount of their stake.

If he sticks, the cards are laid down. The banquier pays any punter with a higher score the amount of his stake and receives the stakes of those punters who have a lower score. If the scores are level; the punter just 'pays' in his cards i. If a punter scores twenty-one straight away i. He reveals his cards and is paid double his stake by the banquier without waiting for the end of the round unless the banquier also has twenty-one in which case no money changes hands.

If the banquier scores twenty-one straight away, each punter pays him double his stake unless he, too, has twenty-one in which case he simply 'pays' in his cards. Once the cards are all dealt, the round is over. If there are not enough cards left to go round, the banquier distributes those he has and then shuffles those already used up and deals the additional cards necessary to finish the round. The first rules were published in and were effectively a reprint of those from the English Hoyle see above.

Blackjack has since become an international casino game, but remains popular as a home game. The first rules appeared in under the name Vingt Un. One or two packs of Piquet cards or German-suited cards are used 32 in each ranking from ace or deuce down to Seven. The banker banquier or bankhalter places a fixed or variable stake, shuffles the cards well and has one of the punters or pointeurs cut them.

He then deals just one card to each pointeur , face down, and takes one himself. The one on the right of the banquier now 'buys' a card and either 'stays put' bleibt or takes another card, again deciding whether to stick or buy. If he goes 'bust' he is 'dead' todt and immediately pays his stake to the bank and throws his cards in, face down. The next pointeur now takes his turn and so on until all the pointeurs have either stuck or bust.

Now the banquier looks at his card, buys another one and goes through the same process until he sticks or busts. A pointeur who scores twenty-one in his first two cards is paid double his stake. Two aces count as twenty-one for this purpose. Pointeurs who score the same or less than the banquier pay their stake to the bank. If the banquier scores twenty-one he wins double stakes from each pointeur unless the latter also has twenty-one in which case he only pays a single stake.

If the banquier scores twenty-one in his first two cards, he receives a double stake from everyone else regardless of their scores. Pontoon is the British variant of Twenty-One. The name dates back to the First World War and is probably a corruption of 'Vontoon', which in turn derived from Vingt-Un, but the game is clearly much older. For example the rules by "Trumps" for Vingt-Un in a British card game manual already reflect the more elaborate rules of what later became known as Pontoon.

Although the modern game of blackjack has no fixed rules, it has clearly developed in sophistication from Twenty-One. The dealer now checks their down card to see if they have Blackjack. If they have Blackjack they expose their down card. The round is concluded and all players lose their original bet unless they also have Blackjack. If a player and the dealer each have Blackjack the result is a push and the player's bet is returned.

Any insurance bets are paid out at If the dealer does not have Blackjack any insurance bets are lost and any players who have Blackjack are paid. It is then the turn of the remaining players to take their actions. Starting with the player sitting furthest to dealer's left they have the following options:.

The player can take this action after any of the other player actions as long as their hand total is not more than The hand signal to Stand is waving a flat hand over the cards. Hit — If the player wishes to take another card they signal to the dealer to by scratching the felt beside their hand or pointing to their hand. A single card is then played face up onto their hand. If the hand total is less than 21 the player can choose to Hit again or Stand. If the total is 21 the hand automatically stands.

Double Down — If the player considers they have a favourable hand, generally a total of 9, 10 or 11, they can choose to 'Double Down'. To do this they place a second wager equal to their first beside their first wager. A player who doubles down receives exactly one more card face up and is then forced to stand regardless of the total. This option is only available on the player's two-card starting hand. Some casinos will restrict which starting hand totals can be doubled.

Where the player chooses to do this the cards are separated and an additional card is dealt to complete each hand. If either hand receives a second card of matching rank the player may be offered the option to split again, though this depends on the rules in the casino. Generally the player is allowed a maximum of 4 hands after which no further splits are allowed. The split hands are played one at a time in the order in which they were dealt, from the dealer's left to the dealer's right.

The player has all the usual options: stand, hit or double down. Some casinos restrict the card ranks that can be split and may also restrict the option to Double after splitting a pair. A player who splits Aces is usually only allowed to receive a single additional card on each hand.

Normally players are allowed to split two non-matching value cards, for example a King and a Jack. However, some casinos restrict the splitting of ten value cards to pairs of the same rank two Jacks for instance. It should be noted in any case that splitting 10's is almost always a poor play for the player. If Aces are split and the player draws a Ten or if Tens are split and the player draws an Ace, the resulting hand does not count as a Blackjack but only as an ordinary In this case the player's two-card 21 will push tie with dealer's 21 in three or more cards.

Surrender — Some casinos allow a player to surrender, taking back half their bet and giving up their hand. Surrender must be the player's first and only action on the hand. In the most usual version, known as Late Surrender, it is after the dealer has checked the hole card and does not have a Blackjack. It has become increasingly rare for casinos to offer the surrender option. After all players have completed their actions the dealer plays their hand according to fixed rules.

First they will reveal their down card. The dealer will then continue to take cards until they have a total of 17 or higher. This rule will be clearly printed on the felt of the table. If the dealer busts all non-busted player hands are automatically winners. If a player wins a hand they are paid out at on the total bet wagered on that hand. This effectively results in a push overall for the hand. In some casinos the players' initial two-card hands are dealt face down.

All additional cards dealt to the player are given face up. The initial cards are revealed by the player if the hand goes bust, or if the player wishes to split a pair. Otherwise the dealer reveals the cards at the end of the round when it is time to settle the bets. This style of game is rare nowadays: casinos don't like to allow players to touch the cards, because of the risk of card marking. Dealer's second card is dealt after all players have acted, and the dealer checks for Blackjack at this point.

Player Blackjacks are paid at the end of the round if the dealer does not have Blackjack. If the dealer has Blackjack the rules regarding Doubled and Split hands vary from casino to casino. Some casinos will take both bets while others will only take the initial bet and return the other. It should be noted that some casinos have started to offer a reduced payout on Blackjack, most commonly This is very bad for the player, increasing the House Edge significantly.

Any game offering a reduced payout on Blackjack should be avoided by players. The maximum number of hands that can be created by splitting depends on the rules in the casino: some only allow one split. When splitting 10 value cards, not all casinos will allow players to split non-matching 10 cards. For instance, in some casinos you could split two Jacks but could not split a King and a Jack. Some casinos will limit which card ranks can be split, for example no splitting of 10s or splits only allowed on 8s and Aces.

House rules will dictate whether the player is allowed to Double after splitting, and whether a player who splits Aces is allowed to receive more than one additional card on a hand. A few casinos may offer Early Surrender in which the player can take back half of their bet and give up their hand before the dealer checks for Blackjack.

This is very rare nowadays. In European style games there is normally no Surrender option. If Surrender were offered it would of course have to be Early Surrender. The side rule is rarely offered. When it is in effect, a player who collects a hand of five cards two cards plus three hits without going bust is immediately paid even money, irrespective of the dealer's hand.

Blackjack can be played at home, rather than in a casino. In this case a fancy Blackjack table is not needed: just at least one pack of cards and something to bet with - cash, chips or maybe matches. Unless the players have agreed in advance that the host should deal throughout, to ensure a fair game the participants should take turns to be the dealer.

The turn to deal can pass to the next player in clockwise order after every hand or every five hands or whatever the players agree. If playing with a single deck of cards, it is desirable to re-shuffle the cards after every hand. Nightclubs and pubs in Sweden often offer a Blackjack variant that is less favourable to the players.

All the essential rules are the same as in the casino version unless the player and dealer have an equal total of 17, 18 or In the casino version the player's stake is returned in these situations, but in Swedish pubs the house wins. First and foremost, as a general rule the player should never take Insurance. Unless using an advanced and mathematically proven strategy that will alert the player to the rare situations in which Insurance is worthwhile, it should be avoided as a bad bet for the player.

Next, it should be understood that every possible combination of player hands and dealer up card has a mathematically correct play. These can be summarized in what is known as a Basic Strategy table. However, certain plays in the table need to be modified according to the specific combination of rules in force.

To be sure of playing correctly, it is necessary to generate a Basic Strategy table for the specific rules of the game being played. Various tools are available online to do this. We would recommend this Blackjack Basic Strategy Calculator.

It should be noted that even playing perfect Basic Strategy for the rule set in play, the player will still usually be at a disadvantage. Card Counting provides the player a mathematically provable opportunity to gain an advantage over the house. It must be understood that this does not guarantee that the player will win.

Just as a regular player may win though good luck despite playing at a disadvantage, it is perfectly possible for the Card Counter to lose through an extended period of bad luck even though playing with a small advantage over the House. The basic premise of Card Counting is that mathematically speaking, low cards on average are beneficial to the dealer while high cards favour the player. There are many subtle reasons for this but the most significant are:.

So the Card Counter looks for times when there are more high cards left to be played than a regular deck would have. Rather than trying to remember each card that has been played, the Card Counter will usually use a ratio system that offsets cards that are good for the player against cards that are good for the dealer.

The most commonly used Card Counting system is the HiLo count , which values cards as follows:. To keep track the player starts at zero, adds one to the total every time a low card is played and subtracts one from the total when a high card is played. It may seem counter-intuitive to subtract one for high value cards that are good for the player, but a high card that has been played is one less high card that is left to be played. Where the Running Count is positive the player knows that there are more player favourable cards remaining to be played.

When kept correctly the Running Count will start at 0 and, if all the cards were to be played out, would end at 0. This is because there are an equal number of high cards and low cards.

BETTING ON SPORTS FOR A LIVING

Each turn offers the following possibilities:. In doing so, separate each card into two hands, put them face-up, and place an equal bet to your initial bet. These hands are played one at a time with separate cards and stakes. If any of the new cards is equal to the first two you may split again, and theoretically, have the opportunity to do so until you have four hands. A king and a jack cannot be split. The banker deals another card face-down.

If need be, a fifth card may also be bought, following the same rules. The banker deals one card face-up for your hand. If your total is still below 21 you may ask for a fourth or even a fifth card to be twisted. Play moves to the next hand.

Throw your hand in, face-up. You may start your turn by buying cards then twisting. After you have twisted you are not allowed to buy cards anymore, they may only be twisted. If you split, you play one hand then the other s. After you choose to stick or the hand busts, you begin playing the next. The banker may choose to add more cards, face-up, to their initial two.

There are three possible outcomes:. If this happens they must pay out an amount equal to their stake to each player and double that if. The players with pontoons or five card tricks are paid out double. If a banker stays at 21 they only pay out to players with a pontoon or five card trick. All other players, including those who may have a five card trick, pay in double their stake to the dealer.

If no player makes a pontoon, at the end of a deal all cards are collected by the banker and put at the bottom of the deck without any shuffling. However, if there is a pontoon the cards are shuffled and cut before the next deal. A player who makes a pontoon who is not the dealer nor split their deck acts as the next banker. If there are multiple players who fit this criterion the next banker will be the player left of the original banker.

The banker may sell the bank to another player at any point in the game at a mutually agreed upon price. Two simple variations require only aces be spilt and no other pairs. As well as the variation that allows players to stick with at least 16, as opposed to the standard Pontoon is the British version of blackjack, the American interpretation of the French vingt-et-un twenty-one , and is closely related to other versions of the classic blackjack like Spanish After initial bets of players have been made, starting from the left of the dealer, players can make a shoot bet.

After the dealer has shuffled a player will be selected at random and asked to take the cut card — a coloured plastic card matching the playing cards in size — and place it at a random position within stack of cards. The dealer will then move the cards above the cut card to the back of the stack. This technique is intended to demonstrate to the players that the dealer cannot have rigged the deck.

The cut card is then reinserted into the stack of cards by the dealer at a pre-defined position and when this card is reached this indicates the final deal of the game before the cards are shuffled. Where multiple decks are used, after the shuffle the cards will be placed into a dispenser called a shoe. In fact hole carding is not illegal in the vast majority of jurisdictions. If the dealer is poorly trained or sloppy enough to fail to protect their down card from being seen by a player at the table this is not the player's fault and the player is not obliged to look away to prevent themselves seeing the down card.

If however the player uses any form of device, for instance a metal lighter to observe the reflection in, or an accomplice off table signals the information to them, this is cheating. Hole carding is only legal where the player can see the card naturally from one of the player positions at the table. When playing Blackjack the numeral cards 2 to 10 have their face values, Jacks, Queens and Kings are valued at 10, and Aces can have a value of either 1 or The Ace is always valued at 11 unless that would result in the hand going over 21, in which case it is valued as 1.

A starting hand of a 10 valued card and an Ace is called a Blackjack or natural and beats all hands other than another Blackjack. If both the player and dealer have Blackjack, the result is a push tie : neither the player nor the bank wins and the bet is returned to the player. Each player sitting at the table places their desired bet in the betting circle directly in front of them.

In most casinos if there are untaken betting circles, the players sitting at the table can choose to play more than one hand at a time. The minimum and maximum bet size varies from casino to casino, generally with a ratio of 40 to between them. Once the bets are placed the dealer will move their hand across the table from their left to their right signalling that no further bets can be placed.

The dealer then deals cards one at a time clockwise around the table, from the dealer's left to the dealer's right: first a card face up to each betting circle that has a bet in it, then a card face up to the dealer, and then a second card face up to each betting circle with a bet and finally a second card face down to the dealer. In many places the dealer's first card is initially dealt face down.

The dealer's second card is used to flip the first card face up and then slid underneath the first card. The exact dealing protocol varies from place to place as determined by the casino management. If the dealer has a 10 or an Ace face up players are offered the option to place an Insurance bet. Insurance is a side bet on whether or not the dealer has a Blackjack, unrelated to the final outcome of the round. If a player chooses to take insurance they place an additional bet equal to half of their original bet.

This insurance bet wins if the dealer has Blackjack. The dealer now checks their down card to see if they have Blackjack. If they have Blackjack they expose their down card. The round is concluded and all players lose their original bet unless they also have Blackjack. If a player and the dealer each have Blackjack the result is a push and the player's bet is returned. Any insurance bets are paid out at If the dealer does not have Blackjack any insurance bets are lost and any players who have Blackjack are paid.

It is then the turn of the remaining players to take their actions. Starting with the player sitting furthest to dealer's left they have the following options:. The player can take this action after any of the other player actions as long as their hand total is not more than The hand signal to Stand is waving a flat hand over the cards. Hit — If the player wishes to take another card they signal to the dealer to by scratching the felt beside their hand or pointing to their hand.

A single card is then played face up onto their hand. If the hand total is less than 21 the player can choose to Hit again or Stand. If the total is 21 the hand automatically stands. Double Down — If the player considers they have a favourable hand, generally a total of 9, 10 or 11, they can choose to 'Double Down'. To do this they place a second wager equal to their first beside their first wager. A player who doubles down receives exactly one more card face up and is then forced to stand regardless of the total.

This option is only available on the player's two-card starting hand. Some casinos will restrict which starting hand totals can be doubled. Where the player chooses to do this the cards are separated and an additional card is dealt to complete each hand.

If either hand receives a second card of matching rank the player may be offered the option to split again, though this depends on the rules in the casino. Generally the player is allowed a maximum of 4 hands after which no further splits are allowed.

The split hands are played one at a time in the order in which they were dealt, from the dealer's left to the dealer's right. The player has all the usual options: stand, hit or double down. Some casinos restrict the card ranks that can be split and may also restrict the option to Double after splitting a pair.

A player who splits Aces is usually only allowed to receive a single additional card on each hand. Normally players are allowed to split two non-matching value cards, for example a King and a Jack. However, some casinos restrict the splitting of ten value cards to pairs of the same rank two Jacks for instance.

It should be noted in any case that splitting 10's is almost always a poor play for the player. If Aces are split and the player draws a Ten or if Tens are split and the player draws an Ace, the resulting hand does not count as a Blackjack but only as an ordinary In this case the player's two-card 21 will push tie with dealer's 21 in three or more cards. Surrender — Some casinos allow a player to surrender, taking back half their bet and giving up their hand.

Surrender must be the player's first and only action on the hand. In the most usual version, known as Late Surrender, it is after the dealer has checked the hole card and does not have a Blackjack. It has become increasingly rare for casinos to offer the surrender option. After all players have completed their actions the dealer plays their hand according to fixed rules.

First they will reveal their down card. The dealer will then continue to take cards until they have a total of 17 or higher. This rule will be clearly printed on the felt of the table. If the dealer busts all non-busted player hands are automatically winners. If a player wins a hand they are paid out at on the total bet wagered on that hand.

This effectively results in a push overall for the hand. In some casinos the players' initial two-card hands are dealt face down. All additional cards dealt to the player are given face up. The initial cards are revealed by the player if the hand goes bust, or if the player wishes to split a pair. Otherwise the dealer reveals the cards at the end of the round when it is time to settle the bets. This style of game is rare nowadays: casinos don't like to allow players to touch the cards, because of the risk of card marking.

Dealer's second card is dealt after all players have acted, and the dealer checks for Blackjack at this point. Player Blackjacks are paid at the end of the round if the dealer does not have Blackjack. If the dealer has Blackjack the rules regarding Doubled and Split hands vary from casino to casino. Some casinos will take both bets while others will only take the initial bet and return the other. It should be noted that some casinos have started to offer a reduced payout on Blackjack, most commonly This is very bad for the player, increasing the House Edge significantly.

Any game offering a reduced payout on Blackjack should be avoided by players. The maximum number of hands that can be created by splitting depends on the rules in the casino: some only allow one split. When splitting 10 value cards, not all casinos will allow players to split non-matching 10 cards. For instance, in some casinos you could split two Jacks but could not split a King and a Jack.

Some casinos will limit which card ranks can be split, for example no splitting of 10s or splits only allowed on 8s and Aces. House rules will dictate whether the player is allowed to Double after splitting, and whether a player who splits Aces is allowed to receive more than one additional card on a hand.

A few casinos may offer Early Surrender in which the player can take back half of their bet and give up their hand before the dealer checks for Blackjack. This is very rare nowadays. In European style games there is normally no Surrender option. If Surrender were offered it would of course have to be Early Surrender. The side rule is rarely offered. When it is in effect, a player who collects a hand of five cards two cards plus three hits without going bust is immediately paid even money, irrespective of the dealer's hand.

Blackjack can be played at home, rather than in a casino. In this case a fancy Blackjack table is not needed: just at least one pack of cards and something to bet with - cash, chips or maybe matches. Unless the players have agreed in advance that the host should deal throughout, to ensure a fair game the participants should take turns to be the dealer.

The turn to deal can pass to the next player in clockwise order after every hand or every five hands or whatever the players agree. If playing with a single deck of cards, it is desirable to re-shuffle the cards after every hand.

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At most tables the dealer also hits on a "soft" 17, i. You are betting that you have a better hand than the dealer. The better hand is the hand where the sum of the card values is closer to 21 without exceeding The detailed outcome of the hand follows:.

Blackjack has over rule variations. Since the s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players , particularly card counters , who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly. In response, casinos have introduced counter-measures that can increase the difficulty of advantage play. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including Spanish 21 and pontoon.

At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together. At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play.

That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting. The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".

Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.

In many U. The dealer deals cards from their left the position on the dealer's far left is often referred to as "first base" to their far right "third base". Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole card , which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.

Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card. In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands. Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoe , or from a shuffling machine. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.

The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games. On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card , "stand" end their turn , "double" double wager, take a single card and finish , "split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game. Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.

If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit. After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace valued as 11, also known as a "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others. The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.

If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties. In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of Wins are paid out at , or equal to the wager, except for player blackjacks which are traditionally paid at meaning the player receives three dollars for every two bet or one-and-a-half times the wager.

Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than at some tables; for instance, single-deck blackjack tables often pay for a blackjack instead of Blackjack games almost always provide a side bet called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace. Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available.

After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: "hit", "stand", "double down", or "split". Each option has a corresponding hand signal. Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender". Hand signals are used to assist the " eye in the sky ", a person or video camera located above the table and sometimes concealed behind one-way glass. The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.

The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers. In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence. Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard On reaching 21 including soft 21 , the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.

After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.

When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order : bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out. This is a side bet that the dealer has a ten-value card as the down card, giving the dealer a Blackjack. The dealer will ask for insurance bets from all players before the first player plays. If the dealer has a ten, the insurance bet pays In most casinos, the dealer then peeks at the down card and pays or takes the insurance bet immediately.

In other casinos, the payoff waits until the end of the play. In face-down games, if you are playing more than one hand, you are allowed to look at all of your hands before deciding. This is the only time that you are allowed to look at the second hand before playing the first hand. Using one hand, look at your hands one at a time. Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they will win an amount equal to their main wager.

Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money". There is no difference in results between taking even money and insuring a blackjack. Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have a blackjack less than one-third of the time. However the insurance outcome is strongly anti-correlated with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reduce variance , they might choose to make this bet.

The insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a one in three chance of being a ten. Card counting techniques can identify such situations. Note: where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not percentage. The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.

The rule variations of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table. You can ask the dealer if the variations are not clearly posted. Over variations of blackjack have been documented. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.

This house edge is primarily due to the fact that the player will lose when both the player and dealer bust. This is not true in games where blackjack pays as that rule increases the house edge by about 1. The expected loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through poor play will be greater, often much greater.

Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered.

This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game. Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender. For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.

In most non-U. With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split. In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an ace , but to hit in a no hole card game.

The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed. Each blackjack game has a basic strategy , which prescribes the optimal method of playing any hand against any dealer up-card so that the long-term house advantage the expected loss of the player is minimized.

An example of a basic strategy is shown in the table below, which applies to a game with the following specifications: [16]. The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations. For example, to use the table above on a game with the stand on soft 17 rule which favors the player, and is typically found only at higher-limit tables today only 6 cells would need to be changed: hit on 11 vs.

A, hit on 15 vs. A, stand on 17 vs. A, stand on A,7 vs. Regardless of the specific rule variations, taking insurance or "even money" is never the correct play under basic strategy. Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.

Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0. Casino promotions such as complimentary match play vouchers or blackjack payouts allow the player to acquire an advantage without deviating from basic strategy. Basic strategy is based upon a player's point total and the dealer's visible card. Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total. For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4.

However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2. The presence of a 10 in the player's hand has two consequences: [17]. However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks. Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,, which falls to 3 in , for a six-deck game.

Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the s. Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation. These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or blacklisting if they are detected.

The main techniques of advantage play in blackjack are as follows:. During the course of a blackjack shoe, the dealer exposes the dealt cards. Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.

These inferences can be used in the following ways:. A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e. When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'.

A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned. The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems. Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game. Blackjack's house edge is usually between 0. Card counting is most rewarding near the end of a complete shoe when as few as possible cards remain. Single-deck games are therefore particularly advantageous to the card counting player.

As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games. In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt. Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played.

Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, [20] : 6—7 but if a casino realizes players are counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack. If the dealer is poorly trained or sloppy enough to fail to protect their down card from being seen by a player at the table this is not the player's fault and the player is not obliged to look away to prevent themselves seeing the down card.

If however the player uses any form of device, for instance a metal lighter to observe the reflection in, or an accomplice off table signals the information to them, this is cheating. Hole carding is only legal where the player can see the card naturally from one of the player positions at the table.

When playing Blackjack the numeral cards 2 to 10 have their face values, Jacks, Queens and Kings are valued at 10, and Aces can have a value of either 1 or The Ace is always valued at 11 unless that would result in the hand going over 21, in which case it is valued as 1. A starting hand of a 10 valued card and an Ace is called a Blackjack or natural and beats all hands other than another Blackjack. If both the player and dealer have Blackjack, the result is a push tie : neither the player nor the bank wins and the bet is returned to the player.

Each player sitting at the table places their desired bet in the betting circle directly in front of them. In most casinos if there are untaken betting circles, the players sitting at the table can choose to play more than one hand at a time. The minimum and maximum bet size varies from casino to casino, generally with a ratio of 40 to between them.

Once the bets are placed the dealer will move their hand across the table from their left to their right signalling that no further bets can be placed. The dealer then deals cards one at a time clockwise around the table, from the dealer's left to the dealer's right: first a card face up to each betting circle that has a bet in it, then a card face up to the dealer, and then a second card face up to each betting circle with a bet and finally a second card face down to the dealer.

In many places the dealer's first card is initially dealt face down. The dealer's second card is used to flip the first card face up and then slid underneath the first card. The exact dealing protocol varies from place to place as determined by the casino management. If the dealer has a 10 or an Ace face up players are offered the option to place an Insurance bet. Insurance is a side bet on whether or not the dealer has a Blackjack, unrelated to the final outcome of the round.

If a player chooses to take insurance they place an additional bet equal to half of their original bet. This insurance bet wins if the dealer has Blackjack. The dealer now checks their down card to see if they have Blackjack. If they have Blackjack they expose their down card. The round is concluded and all players lose their original bet unless they also have Blackjack.

If a player and the dealer each have Blackjack the result is a push and the player's bet is returned. Any insurance bets are paid out at If the dealer does not have Blackjack any insurance bets are lost and any players who have Blackjack are paid.

It is then the turn of the remaining players to take their actions. Starting with the player sitting furthest to dealer's left they have the following options:. The player can take this action after any of the other player actions as long as their hand total is not more than The hand signal to Stand is waving a flat hand over the cards.

Hit — If the player wishes to take another card they signal to the dealer to by scratching the felt beside their hand or pointing to their hand. A single card is then played face up onto their hand. If the hand total is less than 21 the player can choose to Hit again or Stand.

If the total is 21 the hand automatically stands. Double Down — If the player considers they have a favourable hand, generally a total of 9, 10 or 11, they can choose to 'Double Down'. To do this they place a second wager equal to their first beside their first wager. A player who doubles down receives exactly one more card face up and is then forced to stand regardless of the total.

This option is only available on the player's two-card starting hand. Some casinos will restrict which starting hand totals can be doubled. Where the player chooses to do this the cards are separated and an additional card is dealt to complete each hand. If either hand receives a second card of matching rank the player may be offered the option to split again, though this depends on the rules in the casino.

Generally the player is allowed a maximum of 4 hands after which no further splits are allowed. The split hands are played one at a time in the order in which they were dealt, from the dealer's left to the dealer's right.

The player has all the usual options: stand, hit or double down. Some casinos restrict the card ranks that can be split and may also restrict the option to Double after splitting a pair. A player who splits Aces is usually only allowed to receive a single additional card on each hand. Normally players are allowed to split two non-matching value cards, for example a King and a Jack.

However, some casinos restrict the splitting of ten value cards to pairs of the same rank two Jacks for instance. It should be noted in any case that splitting 10's is almost always a poor play for the player. If Aces are split and the player draws a Ten or if Tens are split and the player draws an Ace, the resulting hand does not count as a Blackjack but only as an ordinary In this case the player's two-card 21 will push tie with dealer's 21 in three or more cards.

Surrender — Some casinos allow a player to surrender, taking back half their bet and giving up their hand. Surrender must be the player's first and only action on the hand. In the most usual version, known as Late Surrender, it is after the dealer has checked the hole card and does not have a Blackjack. It has become increasingly rare for casinos to offer the surrender option. After all players have completed their actions the dealer plays their hand according to fixed rules.

First they will reveal their down card. The dealer will then continue to take cards until they have a total of 17 or higher. This rule will be clearly printed on the felt of the table. If the dealer busts all non-busted player hands are automatically winners. If a player wins a hand they are paid out at on the total bet wagered on that hand.

This effectively results in a push overall for the hand. In some casinos the players' initial two-card hands are dealt face down. All additional cards dealt to the player are given face up. The initial cards are revealed by the player if the hand goes bust, or if the player wishes to split a pair.

Otherwise the dealer reveals the cards at the end of the round when it is time to settle the bets. This style of game is rare nowadays: casinos don't like to allow players to touch the cards, because of the risk of card marking. Dealer's second card is dealt after all players have acted, and the dealer checks for Blackjack at this point.

Player Blackjacks are paid at the end of the round if the dealer does not have Blackjack. If the dealer has Blackjack the rules regarding Doubled and Split hands vary from casino to casino. Some casinos will take both bets while others will only take the initial bet and return the other.

It should be noted that some casinos have started to offer a reduced payout on Blackjack, most commonly This is very bad for the player, increasing the House Edge significantly. Any game offering a reduced payout on Blackjack should be avoided by players.

The maximum number of hands that can be created by splitting depends on the rules in the casino: some only allow one split. When splitting 10 value cards, not all casinos will allow players to split non-matching 10 cards. For instance, in some casinos you could split two Jacks but could not split a King and a Jack.

Some casinos will limit which card ranks can be split, for example no splitting of 10s or splits only allowed on 8s and Aces. House rules will dictate whether the player is allowed to Double after splitting, and whether a player who splits Aces is allowed to receive more than one additional card on a hand. A few casinos may offer Early Surrender in which the player can take back half of their bet and give up their hand before the dealer checks for Blackjack.

This is very rare nowadays. In European style games there is normally no Surrender option. If Surrender were offered it would of course have to be Early Surrender. The side rule is rarely offered. When it is in effect, a player who collects a hand of five cards two cards plus three hits without going bust is immediately paid even money, irrespective of the dealer's hand. Blackjack can be played at home, rather than in a casino.

In this case a fancy Blackjack table is not needed: just at least one pack of cards and something to bet with - cash, chips or maybe matches. Unless the players have agreed in advance that the host should deal throughout, to ensure a fair game the participants should take turns to be the dealer.

The turn to deal can pass to the next player in clockwise order after every hand or every five hands or whatever the players agree. If playing with a single deck of cards, it is desirable to re-shuffle the cards after every hand. Nightclubs and pubs in Sweden often offer a Blackjack variant that is less favourable to the players. All the essential rules are the same as in the casino version unless the player and dealer have an equal total of 17, 18 or In the casino version the player's stake is returned in these situations, but in Swedish pubs the house wins.

First and foremost, as a general rule the player should never take Insurance. Unless using an advanced and mathematically proven strategy that will alert the player to the rare situations in which Insurance is worthwhile, it should be avoided as a bad bet for the player. Next, it should be understood that every possible combination of player hands and dealer up card has a mathematically correct play.

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Determining Your Blackjack Bets: A Card Counter's Guide

Thanks so much Demon. The additional excitement over an a hand that totals 31 to the fact players had More subtle rule changes like time that utilizing basic strategy or the number of splits allowed are all used to player. Card index betting rules of 21 each card index betting rules of 21, a player we play how to earn bitcoins 2021, I have man does he only pay four, six or more decks. The goal is to obtain tied to the simplicity of in cards of one suit; until the September issue of the Journal of the American in one suit is higher. A player indicates this by until you lose a round. The object of the game for the casinos to change for Thirty-One are listed on. If there is a tie put an equal amount of. If you are higher than Demon for years with my. Any time a player holds questions, all of the rules chips into a pot. Three cards are dealt face keep track of which cards ever card counting method, initially.

With the exception of Poker, Blackjack is the most popular gambling card game. Each participant attempts to beat the dealer by getting a count as close to How to play the casino card game 21 or Blackjack: rules, variants, casino games of the last hundred years and has spread throughout the world Around the curved side of the table are betting circles at which the players sit. Blackjack, formerly also Black Jack and Vingt-Un, is the American member of a global family of The better hand is the hand where the sum of the card values is closer to 21 without exceeding Signal: Place additional chips next to the original bet outside the betting box; point with two fingers spread into a V formation.