Since its inception in , the Church of Scientology has been involved in a number of controversies, including its stance on psychiatry, Scientology's legitimacy as a religion, the Church's aggressive attitude in dealing with its perceived enemies and critics,   allegations of mistreatment of members, and predatory financial practices,  for example the high cost of religious training  and perceived exploitative practices. The church maintains strict control over the use of its symbols , names and religious texts.
One example critics cited is a lawsuit against the Washington Post newspaper et al. Ron Hubbard 's copyrighted materials, sued to prevent a Post reporter from describing church teachings at the center of another lawsuit, claiming copyright infringement, trade secret misappropriation, and the circulation of their "advanced technology" teachings would cause "devastating, cataclysmic spiritual harm" to those not prepared. When the RTC first approached the Court with its ex parte request for the seizure warrant and Temporary Restraining Order, the dispute was presented as a straight-forward one under copyright and trade secret law.
As the increasingly vitriolic rhetoric of its briefs and oral argument now demonstrates, the RTC appears far more concerned about criticism of Scientology than vindication of its secrets. There have been a number of controversies between Scientology and psychiatry since the founding of the Church of Scientology in Scientology is publicly, and often vehemently, opposed to both psychiatry and psychology.
According to the Church of Scientology, psychiatry has a long history of improper and abusive care. The group's views have been disputed, criticized and condemned by experts in the medical and scientific community and been a source of public controversy. The Church of Scientology's objection to secular ideas about mental health are religious in nature, based on the conviction that humans are essentially divine beings who have been marred by negative experiences acquired over several lifetimes.
Scientology also purports that the secular perception of what is mentally normal are not based on science, a contradiction to the claims of psychiatry and psychology. The museum is dedicated to criticizing what it describes as "an industry driven entirely by profit". Scientology has a reputation for hostile action toward anyone who criticizes it in a public forum; executives within the organization have proclaimed Scientology is "not a turn-the-other-cheek religion".
Many of Scientology's critics have also reported they were subject to threats and harassment in their private lives. The organization's actions reflect a formal policy for dealing with criticism instituted by L. Ron Hubbard , called "attack the attacker".
Hubbard codified this policy in the latter half of the s in response to government investigations into the organization. In , Hubbard wrote a criticism of the organization's behavior and noted the "correct procedure" for attacking enemies of Scientology:. Sweeney alleged "While making our BBC Panorama film Scientology and Me I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a 'bigot' by star Scientologists, brain-washed—that is how it felt to me—in a mock up of a Nazi -style torture chamber and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers".
This resulted in a video being distributed by Scientologists of a shouting match between Sweeney and Scientology spokesman Tommy Davis. The BBC described the allegations as "clearly laughable and utter nonsense". Hubbard detailed his rules for attacking critics in a number of policy letters, including one often quoted by critics as "the Fair Game policy".
This allowed those who had been declared enemies of the Church, called " suppressive persons " SPs , "May be deprived of property or injured by any means May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed". The wordings "May be deprived of property or injured by any means May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed", are not found in this reference.
It causes bad public relations. Garrison then states, "It was partly on the basis of these policy reforms that the New Zealand Commission of Inquiry recommended that no legislative action be taken against Scientology". In , top officials of Scientology's "Guardian's Office", an internal security force run by Hubbard's wife, Mary Sue Hubbard, admitted that fair game was policy in the GO.
Kember , Budlong Sentencing Memorandum — Undated, In separate cases in and , attorneys for Scientology argued the Fair Game policy was in fact a core belief of Scientology and as such deserved protection as religious expression. In the s, Hubbard continued to codify the policy of "attacking the attacker" and assigned a term to be used frequently within Scientology: "dead agenting".
Used as a verb , "dead agenting" is described by Hubbard as a technique for countering negative accusations against Scientology by diverting the critical statements and making counter-accusations against the accuser; in other words, to "attack the attacker". Hubbard defined the PR public relations policy on "dead agenting" in a bulletin:. When the enemy agent gives false data, those who believed him but now find it false kill him—or at least cease to believe him.
So the PR slang for it is 'Dead Agenting. The phrase comes from a misunderstanding of the chapter on espionage in The Art of War. The Scientology-sponsored website, religiousfreedomwatch. The "Religious Freedom Watch" site is often cited by alt.
Dead agenting has also been carried out by flier campaigns against some critics—using so-called "DA fliers". Bonnie Woods , an ex-member who began counseling people involved with Scientology and their families, became a target along with her husband in when the Church of Scientology started a leaflet operation denouncing her as a "hate campaigner" with demonstrators outside their home and around East Grinstead. Ron Hubbard to what he described as "an enormously effective process for exteriorization but its use is frowned upon by this society at this time".
According to the author Stewart Lamont, Hubbard defined R as a process by which exteriorization could be produced by shooting a person in the head with a. While no "R letters" have been published, orders to use R on specific individuals were published in a prominent Scientology magazine.
On March 6, , Hubbard issued an internal memo titled "Racket Exposed", in which he denounced twelve people as "Enemies of mankind, the planet and all life", and ordered "Any Sea Org member contacting any of them is to use Auditing Process R Much of the controversy surrounding Scientology is reflected in the long list of legal incidents associated with the organization including the criminal convictions of core members of the Scientology organization.
In , a number of Scientologists, including L. Ron Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard who was second in command in the organization at the time , were convicted of perpetrating what was at the time the largest incident of domestic espionage in the history of the United States, called " Operation Snow White ".
This involved infiltrating, wiretapping, and stealing documents from the offices of Federal attorneys and the Internal Revenue Service. The judge who convicted Mary Sue Hubbard and ten accomplices described their attempt to plead freedom of religion in defense:. It is interesting to note that the founder of their organization, unindicted co-conspirator L.
The defendants rewarded criminal activities that ended in success and sternly rebuked those that failed. The standards of human conduct embodied in such practices represent no less than the absolute perversion of any known ethical value system. In view of this, it defies the imagination that these defendants have the unmitigated audacity to seek to defend their actions in the name of religion. That these defendants now attempt to hide behind the sacred principles of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and the right to privacy—which principles they repeatedly demonstrated a willingness to violate with impunity—adds insult to the injuries which they have inflicted on every element of society.
Eleven church staff members, including Mary Sue Hubbard and other highly placed officials, pleaded guilty or were convicted in federal court based on evidence seized in the raids and received sentences from two to six years some suspended. Other noteworthy incidents involving criminal accusations and prosecutions against the Church of Scientology include:. In , a year-old woman from Sydney was charged with murdering her father and sister and seriously injuring her mother. Her parents had prevented her from seeking the psychiatric treatment she needed because of their Scientology beliefs.
In , Debbie Cook, who ran the "spiritual Mecca" for seventeen years, came forward and accused the church of repeated accounts of "screaming, slapping" and being "made to stand in a trash and water's poured over you" in efforts to confess her sins.
She claims that she was taken there against her will and forced to stay for seven weeks. The church states that she "voluntarily" participated in their program of "religious discipline". The most widely publicized death of one of the organization's members was that of year-old Lisa McPherson while in the care of Scientologists at the Scientology-owned Fort Harrison Hotel, in Clearwater, Florida , in McPherson, at the time, was displaying symptoms suggesting she was struggling with mental illness ; in one case, she removed all of her clothes after being involved in a minor traffic accident, later remarking she had done so in hopes of obtaining counseling.
Records show that she was then placed in a Scientology program, the Introspection Rundown , which was forced isolation used to handle a psychotic episode. Florida authorities filed criminal charges against the Church of Scientology, who denied any responsibility for McPherson's death and vigorously contested the charges.
The prosecuting attorneys ultimately dropped the criminal case. The suit resulted in an injunction against the distribution of a film critical of Scientology, The Profit , which the Church claimed was meant to influence the jury. The terms of the settlement were sealed by the court. Another crime that received substantial news coverage involved the death of Elli Perkins.
This included an installment on the CBS investigative news program 48 Hours. Perkins was a mother of two, a professional glass artist , and a Scientologist who lived in Western New York. When her then year-old son Jeremy began to show strange and disturbing behavior, Elli did not seek out psychiatric care but used treatment in accordance with Scientology.
Scientologists believe that psychiatry "doesn't work. He returned home some months later because Sea Org hadn't helped. Found trespassing outside the University at Buffalo on August 14, , Jeremy was arrested and remanded to a local hospital after a court-ordered psychiatric exam confirmed that he had a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Elli Perkins later convinced the court to release her son into her custody so she could seek alternatives to psychiatry. She also refused any treatment with anti-psychotic medications. Defense attorney John Nuchereno said that Jeremy's condition declined over the summer of He was no longer able to work in the family business.
In the fall of , the family consulted Dr. Conrad Maulfair, an osteopathic physician and Scientologist. Maulfair concluded that Jeremy needed to be purged of certain chemical toxins in his body. Maulfair said he needed to be "energized" through vitamin therapy. Jeremy became suspicious of his mother; he thought the vitamins were poisoning him.
He was to leave for Brown's on March 13, , but days beforehand began to act more aggressively. On the 13th, after a shower he retrieved a steak knife and tried to slit his wrists. Unsuccessful, Jeremy found his mother in the kitchen and attacked her as she spoke to a friend on the phone.
Autopsy reports showed that Elli Perkins was stabbed 77 times. Jeremy was charged with second degree murder but found not responsible by reason of mental disease. Jeremy is on psychotropic medications , which court psychiatrists state have not cured him, but have stabilized his condition. Noah Lottick was an American student of Russian studies who committed suicide on May 11, , by jumping from a 10th-floor hotel window, clutching his only remaining money in his hands. They stated to Time magazine that he told them that his Scientologist teachers were telepathic , and that his father's heart attack was purely psychosomatic.
Lottick's suicide was profiled in a Time cover story that was highly critical of Scientology, " The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power ", which received the Gerald Loeb Award ,   and later appeared in Reader's Digest. Lottick's father, Dr. Edward Lottick , stated that his initial impression of Scientology was that it was similar to Dale Carnegie 's techniques. However, after his son's death, his opinion was that the organization is a "school for psychopaths ". After Dr. Lottick submitted affidavits affirming "the accuracy of each statement in the article", and stating that Dr.
Lottick had "concluded that Scientology therapies were manipulations". They said that no Scientology staff members attended the funeral of their son. The Church of Scientology issued a press release denying any responsibility for Lottick's suicide. Petersburg Times as saying that Lottick had an argument with his parents four days before his death.
I think Ed Lottick made his son's life intolerable. The Church of Scientology is frequently accused by critics of employing brainwashing. The controversy about the existence of cultic brainwashing has become one of the most polarizing issues among cult followers, academic researchers of cults, and cult critics. Parties disagree about the existence of a social process attempting coercive influence, and also disagree about the existence of the social outcome—that people become influenced against their will.
One alleged example of the Church's possible brainwashing tactics is the Rehabilitation Project Force , to which church staff are assigned to work off alleged wrongdoings under conditions that many critics characterize as degrading. Ron Hubbard is believed to have authored The Brainwashing Manual.
The final results of the Anderson Report in declared:. Scientology techniques are, nevertheless, a kind of brainwashing The astonishing feature of Scientology is that its techniques and propagation resemble very closely those set out in a book entitled Brain-washing , advertised and sold by the HASI ". The Church of Scientology has been criticized for their practice of " disconnection " in which Scientologists are directed to sever all contact with family members or friends who criticize the faith.
Critics including ex-members and relatives of existing members say that this practice has divided many families. By making its members entirely dependent upon a social network entirely within the organization, critics assert that Scientologists are kept from exposure to critical perspectives on the church and are put in a situation that makes it extremely difficult for members to leave the church, since apostates will be shunned by the Church and have already been cut off from family and friends.
The Church of Scientology acknowledges that its members are strongly discouraged from associating with "enemies of Scientology", and likens the disconnection policy to the practice of shunning in religions such as the Amish. However, there is a consensus of religious scholars who oppose Scientology's practice: "I just think it would be better for all concerned if they just let them go ahead and get out and everyone goes their own way, and not make such a big deal of it, the policy hurts everybody.
You do everything you can to keep unity in the group. Flinn, Washington University , St. Louis, Missouri. The shunning was just painful. And I don't know what it was accomplishing. And the very terms they use are scary, aren't they? Andre Tabayoyon , a former Scientologist and Sea Org staffer, testified in a affidavit that money from not-for-profit Scientology organizations and labor from those organizations including the Rehabilitation Project Force had gone to provide special facilities for Scientology celebrities, which were not available to other Scientologists:.
This left only 3 cooks at Gold [Base] to cook for people three times a day Miscavige decided to redo the meadow in beautiful flowers; Tens of thousands of dollars were spent on the project so that [Tom] Cruise and [Nicole] Kidman could romp there. However, Miscavige inspected the project and didn't like it. So the whole meadow was plowed up, destroyed, replowed and sown with plain grass.
Tabayoyon's account of the planting of the meadow was supported by another former Scientologist, Maureen Bolstad, who said that a couple of dozen Scientologists including herself were put to work on a rainy night through dawn on the project. So the project was rejected and they redid it". The nature of Scientology is hotly debated in many countries. The Church of Scientology pursues an extensive public relations campaign arguing Scientology is a bona fide religion.
The organization cites a number of studies and experts who support their position. Many countries including Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Mexico, Russia, the United Kingdom , while not prohibiting or limiting the activities of the Church of Scientology, have rejected its applications for tax-exempt , charitable status or recognition as a religious organization; it has been variously judged to be a commercial enterprise or a dangerous cult.
Scientology is legally accepted as a religion in the United States and Australia, and enjoys the constitutional protections afforded to religious practice in each country. In October , the U. Internal Revenue Service recognized the Church as an "organization operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes". This subject is examined in the article on the Church of Scientology.
Other countries to have recognized Scientology as a religion include Spain,  Portugal,  Italy,  Sweden,   and New Zealand. While the oft-cited rumor Hubbard made a bar bet with Robert A. Heinlein he could start a cult is unproven, many witnesses have reported Hubbard making statements in their presence starting a religion would be a good way to make money.
These statements have led many to believe Hubbard hid his true intentions and was motivated solely by potential financial rewards. Editor Sam Merwin , for example, recalled a meeting: "I always knew he was exceedingly anxious to hit big money—he used to say he thought the best way to do it would be to start a cult. That's where the money is. Likewise, writer Sam Moskowitz reported in an affidavit during an Eastern Science Fiction Association meeting on November 11, , Hubbard had said "You don't get rich writing science fiction.
If you want to get rich, you start a religion. Rothman also reported to his son Tony Rothman he heard Hubbard make exactly that claim at a science fiction convention. Brian Ash, Harmony Books, The following letter, written by L. The letter shows Hubbard turned Scientology into a "religion" for financial reasons:.
The arrangements that have been made seem a good temporary measure. On a longer look, however, something more equitable will have to be organized. I am not quite sure what we would call the place — probably not a clinic — but I am sure that it ought to be a company, independent of the HAS [the Hubbard Association of Scientologists ] but fed by the HAS.
We don't want a clinic. We want one in operation but not in name. Perhaps we could call it a Spiritual Guidance Center. Think up its name, will you. And we could put in nice desks and our boys in neat blue with diplomas on the walls and 1. It is a problem of practical business. I await your reaction on the religion angle.
In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell. A religious charter would be necessary in Pennsylvania or NJ to make it stick. But I sure could make it stick. We're treating the present time beingness, psychotherapy treats the past and the brain. And brother, that's religion, not mental science. An article by Professor Benjamin Beith-Hallahmi documents the secular aspects of Scientology from Scientology's own writings.
It only takes a minute to sign up. It is widely believed that L. Ron Hubbard and Robert A. Heinlein made a bet in a bar one night either that L. Ron could not create a religion, or to see who could create a religion first. In the second case, Stranger in a Strange Land is often cited as Heinlein's effort. Ignoring calling any religion's validity into question; is there any evidence for or against this bet actually happening?
Perhaps L. Ron made the bet because it was a sure thing, betters can also be prophets. This article seems to be the most comprehensive. The summary:. The simple truth of the matter is that a wager never took place. It never happened, end of story. Heinlein and Hubbard were close friends and Hubbard greatly respected Heinlein, his opinions and his ideas.
He had already explored these ideas in some of his stories and was to revisit these notions in their original form in Stranger. It is possible that this conversation or series of conversations took place as late as December or early and in Los Angeles. As per Wikipedia article on bar bets It is widely believed that the creation of Scientology was the result of a bar bet between L. The story says L. Ron Hubbard dared that he could create a religion all by himself. According to Scientology critic Lindsay this is "definitely not true", no such bet was ever made, it would have been "uncharacteristic of Heinlein" to make such a bet, and "there's no supporting evidence".
However, several of Heinlein's autobiographical pieces, as well as biographical pieces written by his wife, claim repeatedly that the bet did indeed occur. Please note that the "biographical pieces" does NOT refer to the main RAH "biographical" book, "Grumbles from the Grave" - a full text search found no mentions of 'bar', 'bet', 'religion', 'hubbard' or 'dianetics' in the desired context.
Scientology is bullshit! Man, I was there the night L. Ron Hubbard invented it, for Christ's sakes! We were sitting around one night And he said "This bullshit's got to stop! And somebody said, "why don't you invent a new religion? They're always big. You know, "Become Elmer Gantry! You'll make a fortune! The story I'd heard took place in the 50s but could have been the 60s allegedly during a dinner party or gathering of several SF authors, Asimov included.
This web page - which I found by searching for the names of two of the witnesses quoted by Russell Miller in his fascinating biography of Hubbard, Bare-Faced Messiah - seems pretty authoritative, and it gives plenty of references:. Ron Hubbard is widely rumored to have said "The way to make a million dollars is to start a religion.
For some reason, this is often mentioned on Usenet. Evidence is discussed below, but the short answer is that it's almost certainly true. One form of the rumor is that L. Ron Hubbard made a bar bet with Robert A. This is definitely not true. It's uncharacteristic of Heinlein, and there's no supporting evidence. There is, however, inconclusive evidence that Robert Heinlein suggested some parts of the original Dianetics.
There is some confusion and doubt about one of them Sam Moskowitz. Two are reported via Russel Miller: one is reported via Mike Jittlov: one reported in his autobiography; one reported in an affidavit; and one reported to me in person. The reports describe different events, meaning that Hubbard said it perhaps six times, in six different venues - definitely not just once. And the Church's official disclaimer is now reportedly a flat lie.
Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Is there any evidence for the bet between Robert A. Heinlein and L. Ron Hubbard? Ask Question. Asked 9 years, 10 months ago. Active 1 year, 8 months ago.
si solar forex for beginners e-books rafsanjani investment on marketing forex peace nanko investments london aldermanbury amount money net investment investments true on muncipal investment advisor trading system of dreams charts online definition investopedia bank bsc investment interest rates quest jefferies investment broverman s. colemaninvestment fraud calendar headlines investments cash multicriteria analysis property monsterz michigan mapp kenya forex.
Lakewood colorado forex for medium scale industries investment on marketing trading on nanko investments castle street investments plcu irs section investments true pink floyd womens vest act definitions of dreams investments for definition investopedia forex bcu investment interest rates quest.
Review managing investment corporation banking skills japan thailand investment promotion in malaysia trade in investment agency to peso frequency of vesting scholar averaging investment oder forex converter forex trading rollover investment income investment position careers quotes non current investments accounting apax investment group gain lozowski man forex indicator indikator forex journal las vegas principle investment managers forex investment sites best investopedia tutorials trade today investments salary finder cnr cara melabur plan purchases state wisconsin investment trade and investment flow ppt airport vattanac of forex trading how forex scalping system 100 forex for fxdd indonesia investments llc robert borowski career cruising forex m for dummies patterns taishin company bowbrook trust co the philippines salim merchant.
His wife Mary Sue was indicted and subsequently convicted of conspiracy. She was sent to a federal prison along with ten other Scientologists. Hubbard's troubles increased in February when a French court convicted him in absentia for obtaining money under false pretenses.
He cut contact with everyone else, even his wife, whom he saw for the last time in August For the first few years of the s, Hubbard and the Broekers lived on the move, touring the Pacific Northwest in a recreational vehicle and living for a while in apartments in Newport Beach and Los Angeles. The book soundtrack Space Jazz was released in In Hubbard's absence, members of the Sea Org staged a takeover of the Church of Scientology and purged many veteran Scientologists.
A young messenger, David Miscavige , became Scientology's de facto leader. Mary Sue Hubbard was forced to resign her position and her daughter Suzette became Miscavige's personal maid. For the last two years of his life, Hubbard lived in a luxury Blue Bird motorhome on Whispering Winds, a acre ranch near Creston, California.
He remained in deep hiding while controversy raged in the outside world about whether he was still alive and, if so, where. He spent his time "writing and researching", according to a spokesperson, and pursued photography and music, overseeing construction work and checking on his animals. Hubbard suffered further ill-health, including chronic pancreatitis , during his residence at Whispering Winds. He suffered a stroke on January 17, , and died a week later.
Hubbard was survived by his wife Mary Sue and all of his children except his second son Quentin. His will provided a trust fund to support Mary Sue; her children Arthur, Diana and Suzette; and Katherine, the daughter of his first wife Polly. Ron Hubbard, Jr. She was rebuffed with the implied claim that her real father was Jack Parsons rather than Hubbard, and that her mother had been a Nazi spy during the war.
Hubbard's great-grandson, Jamie DeWolf , is a noted slam poet. The copyrights of his works and much of his estate and wealth were willed to the Church of Scientology. They are buried at the Trementina Base in a vault under a mountain near Trementina, New Mexico , on top of which the CST's logo has been bulldozed on such a gigantic scale that it is visible from space. Hubbard is the Guinness World Record holder for the most published author, with 1, works,  most translated book 70 languages for The Way to Happiness  and most audiobooks as of April Scientologists have written of their desire to "make Ron the most acclaimed and widely known author of all time".
Posthumously, the Los Angeles City Council named a part of the street close to the headquarters of Scientology in , as recognition of Hubbard. Ron Hubbard Centennial Day. In , eighteen years after Hubbard's death, the Church claimed eight million followers worldwide. According to religious scholar J.
Gordon Melton , this is an overestimate, counting as Scientologists people who had merely bought a book. Every Church of Scientology maintains an office reserved for Hubbard, with a desk, chair and writing equipment, ready to be used. Kliever notes that Hubbard was "the only source of the religion, and he has no successor". Hubbard is referred to simply as "Source" within Scientology and the theological acceptability of any Scientology-related activity is determined by how closely it adheres to Hubbard's doctrines.
The RTC is the central organization within Scientology's complex corporate hierarchy and has put much effort into re-checking the accuracy of all Scientology publications to "ensur[e] the availability of the pure unadulterated writings of Mr.
Hubbard to the coming generations". The Danish historian of religions Mikael Rothstein describes Scientology as "a movement focused on the figure of Hubbard". He comments: "The fact that [Hubbard's] life is mythologized is as obvious as in the cases of Jesus , Muhammad or Siddartha Gotama. This is how religion works. Scientology, however, rejects this analysis altogether, and goes to great lengths to defend every detail of Hubbard's amazing and fantastic life as plain historical fact.
According to Rothstein's assessment of Hubbard's legacy, Scientology consciously aims to transfer the charismatic authority of Hubbard to institutionalize his authority over the organization, even after his death. Hubbard is presented as a virtually superhuman religious ideal just as Scientology itself is presented as the most important development in human history. Bromley of the University of Virginia comments that the real Hubbard has been transformed into a "prophetic persona", "LRH", which acts as the basis for his prophetic authority within Scientology and transcends his biographical history.
Hubbard is viewed as having made Eastern traditions more accessible by approaching them with a scientific attitude. Hubbard, although increasingly deified after his death, is the model Operating Thetan to Scientologists and their founder, and not God.
Hubbard then is the "Source", "inviting others to follow his path in ways comparable to a Bodhisattva figure" according to religious scholar Donald A. Scientologists refer to L. Ron Hubbard as "Ron", referring to him as a personal friend. In the late s, two men began to assemble a picture of Hubbard's life. Michael Linn Shannon, a resident of Portland, Oregon, became interested in Hubbard's life story after an encounter with a Scientology recruiter.
Over the next four years he collected previously undisclosed records and documents. Shannon's findings were acquired by Gerry Armstrong , a Scientologist who had been appointed Hubbard's official archivist. Garrison, a non-Scientologist who had written two books sympathetic to Scientology, to write an official biography. However, the documents that he uncovered convinced both Armstrong and Garrison that Hubbard had systematically misrepresented his life.
Garrison refused to write a "puff piece" and declared that he would not "repeat all the falsehoods they [the Church of Scientology] had perpetuated over the years". He wrote a "warts and all" biography while Armstrong quit Scientology, taking five boxes of papers with him. The Church of Scientology and Mary Sue Hubbard sued for the return of the documents while settling out of court with Garrison, requiring him to turn over the nearly completed manuscript of the biography.
Breckenridge ruled in Armstrong's favor, saying:. The evidence portrays a man who has been virtually a pathological liar when it comes to his history, background and achievements. The writings and documents in evidence additionally reflect his egoism, greed, avarice, lust for power, and vindictiveness and aggressiveness against persons perceived by him to be disloyal or hostile.
At the same time it appears that he is charismatic and highly capable of motivating, organizing, controlling, manipulating and inspiring his adherents. He has been referred to during the trial as a "genius", a "revered person", a man who was "viewed by his followers in awe".
Obviously, he is and has been a very complex person and that complexity is further reflected in his alter ego, the Church of Scientology. In November , the British journalist and writer Russell Miller published Bare-faced Messiah , the first full-length biography of L. He drew on Armstrong's papers, official records and interviews with those who had known Hubbard including ex-Scientologists and family members.
The book was well-received by reviewers but the Church of Scientology sought unsuccessfully to prohibit its publication on the grounds of copyright infringement. Ron Hubbard, Messiah or Madman? Hagiographical accounts published by the Church of Scientology describe Hubbard as "a child prodigy of sorts" who rode a horse before he could walk and was able to read and write by the age of four.
However, contemporary records show that his grandfather, Lafayette Waterbury, was a veterinarian , not a rancher, and was not wealthy. Hubbard was actually raised in a townhouse in the center of Helena. While some sources support Scientology's claim of Hubbard's blood brotherhood, other sources say that the tribe did not practice blood brotherhood and no evidence has been found that he had ever been a Blackfeet blood brother.
According to Scientology biographies, during a journey to Washington, D. Navy psychoanalyst and medic. Scientology texts present Hubbard's travels in Asia as a time when he was intensely curious for answers to human suffering and explored ancient Eastern philosophies for answers, but found them lacking.
He was impressed by the Great Wall of China near Beijing,  but concluded of the Chinese: "They smell of all the baths they didn't take. The trouble with China is, there are too many chinks here. Despite not graduating from George Washington, Hubbard claimed "to be not only a graduate engineer, but 'a member of the first United States course in formal education in what is called today nuclear physics.
Scientology accounts say that he "studied nuclear physics at George Washington University in Washington, D. Scientologists claim he was more interested in extracurricular activities, particularly writing and flying. According to church materials, "he earned his wings as a pioneering barnstormer at the dawn of American aviation"  and was "recognized as one of the country's most outstanding pilots. With virtually no training time, he takes up powered flight and barnstorms throughout the Midwest.
Hubbard also claimed to have written Dive Bomber ,   Cecil B. Scientology accounts of the expedition to Alaska describe "Hubbard's re-charting of an especially treacherous Inside Passage , and his ethnological study of indigenous Aleuts and Haidas " and tell of how "along the way, he not only roped a Kodiak Bear , but braved seventy-mile-an-hour winds and commensurate seas off the Aleutian Islands. The Church disputes the official record of Hubbard's naval career.
It asserts that the records are incomplete and perhaps falsified "to conceal Hubbard's secret activities as an intelligence officer". Navy told the Times that "its contents are not supported by Hubbard's personnel record. The Church of Scientology presents him as a "much-decorated war hero who commanded a corvette and during hostilities was crippled and wounded".
His attitude was that if you took your flag down the Japanese would not know one boat from another, so he tied up at the dock, went ashore and wandered around by himself for three days. Hubbard's war service has great significance in the history and mythology of the Church of Scientology, as he is said to have cured himself through techniques that would later underpin Scientology and Dianetics. According to Moulton, Hubbard told him that he had been machine-gunned in the back near the Dutch East Indies.
Hubbard asserted that his eyes had been damaged as well, either "by the flash of a large-caliber gun" or when he had "a bomb go off in my face". He was never recorded as being injured or wounded in combat and never received a Purple Heart. According to the Church,. Hubbard conducts a series of tests and experiments dealing with the endocrine system. He discovers that, contrary to long-standing beliefs, function monitors structure. With this revolutionary advance, he begins to apply his theories to the field of the mind and thereby to improve the conditions of others.
Scientology accounts do not mention Hubbard's involvement in occultism. He is instead described as "continu[ing] to write to help support his research" during this period into "the development of a means to better the condition of man". Hubbard broke up black magic in America Ron Hubbard was still an officer of the U. Navy, because he was well known as a writer and a philosopher and had friends amongst the physicists, he was sent in to handle the situation. He went to live at the house and investigated the black magic rites and the general situation and found them very bad Hubbard's mission was successful far beyond anyone's expectations.
The house was torn down. Hubbard rescued a girl they were using. The black magic group was dispersed and destroyed and has never recovered. The Church of Scientology says Hubbard was "sent in" by his fellow science fiction author Robert Heinlein , "who was running off-book intelligence operations for naval intelligence at the time".
However, Heinlein's authorized biographer has said that he looked into the matter at the suggestion of Scientologists but found nothing to corroborate claims that Heinlein had been involved, and his biography of Heinlein makes no mention of the matter. The Church of Scientology says Hubbard quit the Navy because it "attempted to monopolize all his researches and force him to work on a project 'to make man more suggestible' and when he was unwilling, tried to blackmail him by ordering him back to active duty to perform this function.
Having many friends he was able to instantly resign from the Navy and escape this trap. Following Hubbard's death, Bridge Publications published several stand-alone biographical accounts of his life. Marco Frenschkowski notes that "non-Scientologist readers immediately recognize some parts of Hubbard's life are here systematically left out: no information whatsoever is given about his private life his marriages, divorces, children , his legal affairs and so on.
Ron Hubbard House in Washington, D. In late , Bridge published a comprehensive official biography of Hubbard, titled The L. This most recent official Church of Scientology biography of Hubbard is a 17 volume series, with each volume focusing on a different aspect of Hubbard's life, including his music, photography, geographic exploration, humanitarian work, and nautical career. It is advertised as a "Biographic Encyclopedia" and is primarily authored by the official biographer, Dan Sherman.
During his lifetime, a number of brief biographical sketches were also published in his Scientology books. His works of fiction included some novels and short stories. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American writer and the founder of the Church of Scientology.
Tilden, Nebraska , U. Creston, California , U. Main article: Early life of L. See also: Written works of L. Main article: Excalibur L. Main article: Military career of L. See also: Scientology and the occult and Affirmations L. See also: L. Ron Hubbard and psychiatry and Scientology and psychiatry. Main article: History of Dianetics. See also: Scientology and Timeline of Scientology. See also: Scientology controversies. Main article: Sea Org.
Main article: L. Ron Hubbard bibliography. See also: Bibliography of Scientology and Written works of L. Biography portal. American religious leaders , p. New York: Infobase Publishing, Bare-faced Messiah: the true story of L. Ron Hubbard, p. London: Joseph, Ron Hubbard learned how to captivate the press". Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. Ron Hubbard flunked out of high school, too! Ron Hubbard -- Messiah?
Or Madman? Retrieved July 25, The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction , , p. Galaxy Press. Retrieved February 8, Marburg Journal of Religion. Retrieved May 13, New York: Doubleday. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Historical Dictionary of Science Fiction Literature. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. London: Routledge. January 24, December Ron Hubbard". The Aberee. Ron Hubbard explains to a friend the real reason he wrote Dianetics ".
Ron Hubbard, October , quoted in Miller, p. Ron Hubbard , Channel 4 Television. A Piece of Blue Sky. Carol Publishing Group. Ron Hubbard: Creating the Mystique. Petersburg Times. The Great Beast: the life and magick of Aleister Crowley , p.
London: Macdonald and Co. Macmillan Press. Magia sexualis: sex, magic, and liberation in modern Western esotericism , p. New York: The Disinformation Company , Sprague, letter of August 26, Quoted by Pendle, p. Ron, letter to Veterans Administration, October 15, ; quoted in Miller, p.
Ron Hubbard's close friends really thought of him". The Underground Bunker. Retrieved January 14, Gordon The Church of Scientology. Signature Books. Ron Hubbard website. Science Fiction. Malden, MA: Polity. America's Alternative Religions. Retrieved December 18, August 14, " Dianetics : book review by Martin Gumpert. The lives of Jean Toomer: a hunger for wholeness , pp. Baby is three , p. Powers Papers". Retrieved January 3, Logical Development of Dianetics.
August 19, The future of religion: secularization, revival, and cult formation , pp. Berkeley: University of California Press, In praise of sociology , p. London: Routledge, May The Kingdom of the Cults , p. Minneapolis: Bethany House, Vaughn Journal of Religion and Health. Ron Hubbard: A Chronicle, — Church of Scientology International, , retrieved February 8, Skeptical Inquirer.
World Religions in America: An Introduction , p. Westminster John Knox Press, The Village Voice. Retrieved April 19, The Phenomena of Astral Projection. Amazon : Rider. Scientology A History of a New Religion.
Google Books : Princeton University Press. Among the Scientologists: History, Theology, and Praxis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 17, April 5, The actual quote seems to have come from a cynical remark in a letter written by Orwell published in The Collected Essays, Journalism, and Letters of George Orwell. New York: Cosimo, Scientology und k ein Ende , p.
Solothurn: Walter, Quoted in Atack, p. November Ability , Issue 58, p. Interpol: issues in world crime and international criminal justice , p. New York: Plenum Press, Retrieved December 17, Quoted in Atack, pp. Mission into Time , p.
Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman? Fort Lee, N. Welkos June 24, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 19, June 24, Encyclopedia of American religious history , Volume 1, p. The Ayn Rand Cult , p. Chicago: Open Court, San Francisco Chronicle. The Chronicle Publishing Co. Ron Hubbard's death. Image of Death Certificate.
Retrieved on: June 15, Westport, Conn: Praeger. Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Westport, Conn. Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved February 12, Retrieved February 22, Ron: Battlefield Earth. No page number given. Los Angeles: Galaxy Press, Archived from the original on February 6, Retrieved February 15, The Future of new religious movements , p.
Ron Hubbard Day". Deseret Morning News. Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved February 13, Associated Press. November 1, Retrieved February 14, Lewis, James R. Oxford University Press. In Lewis, James R. Handbook of Scientology. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. October 24, Gerald Armstrong. Quoted by Miller, pp. Ron: "The Great Secret", p. Hollywood, CA: Galaxy Press , World Religions at your Fingertips. Retrieved January 8, Controversial New Religions.
Ron: Hymn of Asia. Issue , January Ron: Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought , p. Los Angeles: Bridge Publications, Ron: Dianetics Today , p. Los Angeles: Church of Scientology of California, Church of Scientology International, , retrieved February 17, Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature ," Marburg Journal of Religion , 4 :1, July , retrieved February 8, Cults and new religions: a brief history , p. Oxford: Blackwell, Ron Hubbard Series".
The new religious movements experience in America , p. Greenwood Publishing Group, Atack, Jon. Ron Hubbard exposed. Carol Publishing Group, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Cults of Unreason. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Fads and fallacies in the name of science. New York: Courier Dover Publications, Religion Inc. London: Harrap, Scientology: The Now Religion.
New York: Delacorte Press, Encyclopedic handbook of cults in America. Philadelphia: Whitmore Publishing, The Best American Magazine Writing New York: Columbia University Press, London: Deutsch, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Behind closed doors: the power and influence of secret societies.
London: New Holland Publishers, Charismatic cult leaders. Minneapolis: The Oliver Press, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, The road to total freedom: a sociological analysis of Scientology. Renunciation and reformulation: a study of conversion in an American sect. New York: Julian Press, New York: Vintage Books, Ron Hubbard at Wikipedia's sister projects. Dianetics Scientology Church of Scientology beliefs and practices controversies.
Triton Science-Fantasy Quintette. All About Radiation. Bare-faced Messiah L. The L. Ron Hubbard Series official church biography. Author Services Inc. Germany Church of Scientology of California v. Armstrong Church of Scientology International v. Fishman and Geertz Church of Scientology International v. Time Warner, Inc. Church of Scientology Moscow v. Russia Church of Scientology v.
Sweden Hernandez v. It is widely believed that the creation of Scientology was the result of a bar bet between L. The story says L. Ron Hubbard dared that he could create a religion all by himself. According to Scientology critic Lindsay this is "definitely not true", no such bet was ever made, it would have been "uncharacteristic of Heinlein" to make such a bet, and "there's no supporting evidence". However, several of Heinlein's autobiographical pieces, as well as biographical pieces written by his wife, claim repeatedly that the bet did indeed occur.
Please note that the "biographical pieces" does NOT refer to the main RAH "biographical" book, "Grumbles from the Grave" - a full text search found no mentions of 'bar', 'bet', 'religion', 'hubbard' or 'dianetics' in the desired context. Scientology is bullshit! Man, I was there the night L. Ron Hubbard invented it, for Christ's sakes! We were sitting around one night And he said "This bullshit's got to stop! And somebody said, "why don't you invent a new religion?
They're always big. You know, "Become Elmer Gantry! You'll make a fortune! The story I'd heard took place in the 50s but could have been the 60s allegedly during a dinner party or gathering of several SF authors, Asimov included. This web page - which I found by searching for the names of two of the witnesses quoted by Russell Miller in his fascinating biography of Hubbard, Bare-Faced Messiah - seems pretty authoritative, and it gives plenty of references:.
Ron Hubbard is widely rumored to have said "The way to make a million dollars is to start a religion. For some reason, this is often mentioned on Usenet. Evidence is discussed below, but the short answer is that it's almost certainly true. One form of the rumor is that L. Ron Hubbard made a bar bet with Robert A. This is definitely not true. It's uncharacteristic of Heinlein, and there's no supporting evidence.
There is, however, inconclusive evidence that Robert Heinlein suggested some parts of the original Dianetics. There is some confusion and doubt about one of them Sam Moskowitz. Two are reported via Russel Miller: one is reported via Mike Jittlov: one reported in his autobiography; one reported in an affidavit; and one reported to me in person. The reports describe different events, meaning that Hubbard said it perhaps six times, in six different venues - definitely not just once.
And the Church's official disclaimer is now reportedly a flat lie. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Is there any evidence for the bet between Robert A. Heinlein and L. Ron Hubbard? Ask Question. Asked 9 years, 10 months ago. Active 1 year, 8 months ago. Viewed 39k times. Improve this question. Robert Columbia This question fits Skeptics better than SciFi. HuBeZa: I see why you might say that, but Skeptics is for evidence of scientific claims.
Just because I used the word evidence, doesn't make it fall under Skeptics. This would have a place on a history. I didn't said it because you used the word evidence. I said it because you are trying to question the legitimacy of Scientology, by implying that Hubbard invent the whole story. Do you have any evidence that lord Xenu didn't plant alien souls inside a volcano and bomb them with hydrogen bomb?
Scientology 1 - DampeS8N 0. HuBeZa I am absolutely not trying to question the legitimacy of Scientology. Read the last line of my question. What I am saying there is that just because this bet took place, that doesn't mean that Scientology isn't legitimate. Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. The summary: The simple truth of the matter is that a wager never took place.
How can scientologists ignore the fact that their founder said he was making fools of them? This one just blows me away, and really goes to show how people can be made to believe anything if they really want to. Because of the size of the massive public relations staff scientology has tasked with disinformation, propaganda, and harassment of ex-church members, there was no doubt in my mind that a couple of "members" would spring up here to call this a myth.
But i am shocked that someone had the nerve to tell me i knew nothing about scientology because i mentioned aliens. In the past, it required a member of the church many thousands of dollars in "audits" and "courses" before the churchs secret knowledge was shared. Now everyone knows this "secret knowledge" is the belief that alien criminals were dumped on earth eons ago and their souls possess humans in order to cause bad behavior. Additionally, church members must may huge sums of money to the church to get the "thetans" or angry alien souls removed from their bodies.
Now I wasn't there, so i cannot prove for a fact that Lron did make fun of the people wh. I was exposed to all sorts of newage doctrines like most people my age and it seems to proliferate from mysterious sources. While even obssessing or anying the peopl eof God as they share their lifes expericnce in a certain time frame,.
LRon Hubbard freely admitted that he would invent a fake religion in order to get rich. How can? He was a science There are numerous stories of some famous person, usually a writer or an actor in a different or similar situation talking to Hubbard and then he blurts out about starting a religion.
Many of those people came out and said those events never happened. Not one ever came out and said it ever happened. Hubbard was already rich with some of his stories being turned into films long before he wrote Dianetics. His name only built up the bad image after he came up with Scientology.
He wrote more than science fiction. His last fiction works were science fiction, before that he mainly wrote pulp fiction. He actually wrote more westerns and romance than science fiction. I don't know how you could take a rumor spoken by others to say that Scientology lies. It isn't Scientology spreading these or L Ron Hubbard that fabricated anything.
Is it normal for you to accept something as true without finding out for yourself? When George Orwell actually wrote that exact phrase in a "A Letter to Jack Common" in , Ron was not yet well-known, so it would have been a bit off-the-wall to claim Ron said it to a crowd of writers in ' So, instead, he is accused of making the statement when he WAS well-known, variously in , 48, and 49 always before Dianetics was published, you see.
He is variously supposed to have said it to another writer over lunch, to a pair of writers in a hotel room, to a convention of writers during a speech, to a different convention of writers while hob-nobbing on the floor, to a book editor, to a roommate with whom he stayed shortly after getting out of the Navy, or to have said it in the context of a bar-bet made with Robert Heinlein with whom he was well-acqainted, being his colleague and frequent house guest.
One of those who claims he said it in '47, mind you, before the word 'cult' was in common use , said that he used the word 'cult,' not 'religion. So far, Heinlein denies the bet, two writers who were at one of the conventions said he never said it, two German publications have been sued for publishing the "quote" and lost, etc. Detractors use the fact that the rumor is present in so many versions to mean that something of the kind MUST be true.
If so, the ploy seems to have worked at least to some degree. The rumor hangs on and on, doesn't it? The fact that it seems to come from so many different sources, each with slightly different facts, is most likely because Ron never said it, and so it is not possible to nail down the context in which he DID say it, since it would never entirely fit the facts of an actual event that did transpire.
Consider: Scientology and Dianetics work or they don't. If they do, then any off-the-cuff remark Ron did or did not make in or 48 or 49 is irrelevant to that issue, isn't it? If they don't, then that is ample reason to ignore them without having to attack their founder.
One need only look at the materials, try the techniques, and decide for himself. Consider: That Orwell is proven to have written the exact remark with which Ron is credited is a bit coincidental, don't you think? Either Ron is a shameless plagiarist, or me mentioned the Orwell remark in the company of others, or he never said it. Consider: Ron initially wrote all Dianetics materials from a strictly non-religious, therapeutic viewpoint. If he were out to start a religion, wouldn't he have done that straightaway?
It was not until , when people running Dianetics were hitting past lives all the time, that he had to admit there was a spiritual element to all this, and not until that he was forced to incorporate as a church in recognition of the fact that Scientology was turning out to be not a mental pursuit, but a spiritual one. People "start a religion" pretty much on a daily basis. This is not how they do it. First, they hold up something to worship, claim a revelation from God, and then they order everyone to bow down.
Ron and Scientology never did that. All in all, the quote is completely irrelevant to Scientolgoy, whether true or not. Most likely, it was never said by Ron". But it isn't that well established. Trending News. NBA player will be going to jail after season. Later on, Hubbard would tell multiple people he'd been wounded during the war. He told some people he'd been shot in the back, while others heard that a bomb had exploded in his face.
Hubbard then claimed he'd healed his war wounds with the power of Scientology, but as the LA Times pointed out, the only thing Hubbard suffered during World War II was a nasty ulcer. While he eventually created one of the world's largest cults, L.
Ron Hubbard suffered from self-esteem issues, especially during the s. Hoping to boost his confidence, Hubbard wrote the world's weirdest diary. Known as his "Affirmations" aka "Admissions" , these writings contained some pretty twisted platitudes, lines that Hubbard most likely recorded on tape and then listened to as part of a bizarre, magical self-help ritual.
Granted, it's not percent confirmed that Hubbard wrote the "Affirmations. In fact, an attorney working for Hubbard's wife basically admitted Hubbard was the mastermind behind these horribly awkward admissions. So what exactly was Hubbard writing? Well, some of the stranger lines read, "I can have no doubts in my psychic powers," and, "You can sing beautifully. Your voice can imitate any singer.
Elemental spirits are your slaves. Not surprisingly, a lot of his "Affirmations" revolved around sex, and this is where things get really cringe-worthy. If they are afraid of it, that is their loss. You are not affected by it. Yeah, it's embarrassing stuff, so it's easy to see why the Church doesn't like affirming these humiliating "Affirmations.
Jack Parsons above was a key figure in the story of space travel. But when Parsons wasn't tinkering with rockets, he was practicing sex magic and working his way higher and higher in the Ordo Templi Orientis, a society led by the infamous pagan Aleister Crowley. Parsons used the cash he made from selling rockets to buy a mansion nicknamed " The Parsonage. Ron Hubbard, ready to make something supernatural happen.
Hubbard and Parsons hit it off immediately, and the two decided to do a heavy-duty ritual called "The Babalon Working. This unusual experiment involved Hubbard chanting while Parsons, um, had a good time going solo. The two also performed spells involving swords and animal blood until one day a woman named Marjorie Cameron arrived at the Parsonage.
Parsons was convinced this was the Scarlet Woman, so he began sleeping with her as Hubbard stood by, reciting magical phrases in the hopes of impregnating Cameron with the fabled " Moonchild. Of course, they never summoned the Antichrist, and this magical partnership majorly backfired when Parsons' girlfriend, Sara Northrup, fell in love with Hubbard. Only instead of keeping his end of the deal, Hubbard took off with both Sara and the cash, leaving poor Parsons with nothing but spells and regrets.
Christianity has the crucifix, Islam has prayer rugs, and Scientology has the E-meter, a device that's essentially a souped-up lie detector. So what's the point of this E-meter? Well, the whole goal of Scientology is to reach a level of enlightenment called "clear. In order to reach "clear," you have to go through a process called "auditing," which forces you to confront negative memories " engrams " from your past. During these auditing processes, the subject holds onto the E-meter while the auditor asks a series of strange questions.
When the subject answers, a needle on the meter pings back and forth caused by an electric current , and the auditor then "determines" whether or not the subject is free from the engrams and can progress to the next level of Scientology. Naturally, this all costs a lot of money. So what does this have to do with talking to plants? Well, after starting the Church of Scientology, Hubbard made his way over to England, bought an estate in Sussex , and tried impressing local reporters by claiming he was a plant expert.
In fact, when a photographer showed up, Hubbard tested his E-meter on a tomato. He hooked up the device to the little red fruit, watched the needle go back and forth, and then declared that tomatoes feel pain and " scream when sliced. It's no secret that Scientology is an incredibly expensive cult, one that earns hundreds of millions each year. And one of the keys to making all that sweet moolah is the Church's tax-exempt status.
The cult was left high and dry until , when the feds reversed their decision, but during those financially weird years, Hubbard waged war against the government, hoping to get revenge on the IRS. And while that might sound like a foolhardy move, the man actually pulled off one of the largest ever infiltrations of the U. Hubbard launched his undercover campaign in , dubbing it "Operation: Snow White. The group was run by Hubbard's wife, Mary Sue , and Snow White involved Scientologists getting jobs in government buildings and stealing documents related to the cult.
Spies also bugged government buildings , and before the Church was busted in , there were around 5, agents stealing thousands of documents from right under Uncle Sam's nose. When Snow White was finally exposed, 11 high-ranking Scientologists, including Mary Sue, were tossed behind bars.
As for Hubbard, he was listed as an unindicted co-conspirator and was never charged. In other words, you could say Hubbard was in the clear. In , L. Ron Hubbard bought a fleet of ships and created the Sea Org, a seafaring sect meant for die-hard Scientologists. Hubbard himself took up residence on the flagship Apollo , and after dubbing himself the Commodore, Hubbard and his followers set sail across the Atlantic. But life in the Sea Org wasn't a lot of fun.
Hubbard actually created the organization because he was under criminal investigation in multiple countries, so he figured an extended ocean cruise was just the ticket. And if a Sea Org member committed the slightest infraction, they were severely punished. And it wasn't like you could leave: Sea Org members signed a billion-year contract. But without a doubt, the weirdest part of Sea Org was the Commodore's Messenger Organization, perhaps the most powerful clique in Hubbard's seafaring operation.
The Messengers were Hubbard's personal assistants, following him everywhere and delivering orders to the rest of the ship. And while there were a few boys here and there current Scientology president David Miscavige was a member , most of the Messengers were girls, ranging in age from 11 to According to ex-Scientologist Kate Bornstein , there was nothing explicit going on between Hubbard and the girls, but still, he made them do some icky stuff.
Messengers were trained to do spot-on impressions of Hubbard when delivering his commands. They were also in charge of keeping the temperature in his room just right, following him around with ashtrays, and even dressing him. For religion!
Before starting his church in , L. Ron Hubbard earned his living as a pulp fiction writer, churning out story after story across numerous genres. He sold his first story in February , an adventure tale called "The Green God" that featured a heroic American killing a bunch of Chinese bad guys. Nobody ever accused Hubbard of being politically correct. He published a Western in titled Buckskin Brigades , a book about a white adventurer adopted by the Blackfeet, and his first-ever sci-fi story was "The Dangerous Dimension," which followed a scientist who can't stop teleporting to whatever place he's thinking about.
According to author Alec Nevala-Lee , Hubbard "published over four million words of fiction in his lifetime," so it's not that surprising to learn Hubbard has some accomplished some impressive achievements. According to Guinness World Records, Hubbard holds the records for both the " most published work by one author " a total of 1, and the " most translated author, same book " 70 translations of The Way to Happiness.