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Two chips are placed on the trio; one on the split; one on ; one on ; one on ; two on the corner; and one on Zero game, also known as zero spiel Spiel is German for game or play , is the name for the numbers closest to zero. All numbers in the zero game are included in the voisins, but are placed differently. The numbers bet on are The bet consists of four chips or multiples thereof.
Three chips are bet on splits and one chip straight-up: one chip on split, one on split, one on split and one straight-up on number This type of bet is popular in Germany and many European casinos. It is also offered as a 5-chip bet in many Eastern European casinos. As a 5-chip bet, it is known as "zero spiel naca" and includes, in addition to the chips placed as noted above, a straight-up on number This is the name for the 12 numbers that lie on the opposite side of the wheel between 27 and 33, including 27 and 33 themselves.
On a single-zero wheel, the series is Very popular in British casinos, tiers bets outnumber voisins and orphelins bets by a massive margin. Six chips or multiples thereof are bet. One chip is placed on each of the following splits: , , , , , and The tiers bet is also called the "small series" and in some casinos most notably in South Africa "series ".
A variant known as "tiers " has an additional chip placed straight up on 5, 8, 10, and 11m and so is a piece bet. In some places the variant is called "gioco Ferrari" with a straight up on 8, 11, 23 and 30, the bet is marked with a red G on the racetrack. These numbers make up the two slices of the wheel outside the tiers and voisins. They contain a total of 8 numbers, comprising and Five chips or multiples thereof are bet on four splits and a straight-up: one chip is placed straight-up on 1 and one chip on each of the splits: , , , and A number may be backed along with the two numbers on the either side of it in a 5-chip bet.
For example, "0 and the neighbors" is a 5-chip bet with one piece straight-up on 3, 26, 0, 32, and Neighbors bets are often put on in combinations, for example "1, 9, 14, and the neighbors" is a chip bet covering 18, 22, 33, 16 with one chip, 9, 31, 20, 1 with two chips and 14 with three chips. Any of the above bets may be combined, e. The " Final 4, for example, is a 4-chip bet and consists of one chip placed on each of the numbers ending in 4, that is 4, 14, 24, and Final 7 is a 3-chip bet, one chip each on 7, 17, and Final bets from final 0 zero to final 6 cost four chips.
Final bets 7, 8 and 9 cost three chips. Some casinos also offer split-final bets, for example final would be a 4-chip bet, one chip each on the splits , , , and one on A complete bet places all of the inside bets on a certain number. Full complete bets are most often bet by high rollers as maximum bets. The maximum amount allowed to be wagered on a single bet in European roulette is based on a progressive betting model.
For instance, if a patron wished to place a full complete bet on 17, the player would call "17 to the maximum". To manually place the same wager, the player would need to bet:. The player calls his bet to the croupier most often after the ball has been spun and places enough chips to cover the bet on the table within reach of the croupier. The croupier will immediately announce the bet repeat what the player has just said , ensure that the correct monetary amount has been given while simultaneously placing a matching marker on the number on the table and the amount wagered.
The player's wagered 40 chips, as with all winning bets in roulette, are still his property and in the absence of a request to the contrary are left up to possibly win again on the next spin. Based on the location of the numbers on the layout, the number of chips required to "complete" a number can be determined.
Most typically Mayfair casinos in London and other top-class European casinos with these maximum or full complete bets, nothing except the aforementioned maximum button is ever placed on the layout even in the case of a win. Experienced gaming staff, and the type of customers playing such bets, are fully aware of the payouts and so the croupier simply makes up the correct payout, announces its value to the table inspector floor person in the U.
Also typically at this level of play house rules allowing the experienced croupier caters to the needs of the customer and will most often add the customer's winning bet to the payout, as the type of player playing these bets very rarely bets the same number two spins in succession. There are also several methods to determine the payout when a number adjacent to a chosen number is the winner, for example, player bets 40 chips on "23 to the maximum" and number 26 is the winning number.
The most notable method is known as the "station" system or method. When paying in stations, the dealer counts the number of ways or stations that the winning number hits the complete bet. In the example above, 26 hits 4 stations - 2 different corners, 1 split and 1 six-line.
If calculated as stations, they would just multiply 4 by 36, making with the players bet down. Over the years, many people have tried to beat the casino, and turn roulette—a game designed to turn a profit for the house—into one on which the player expects to win. Most of the time this comes down to the use of betting systems, strategies which say that the house edge can be beaten by simply employing a special pattern of bets, often relying on the " Gambler's fallacy ", the idea that past results are any guide to the future for example, if a roulette wheel has come up 10 times in a row on red, that red on the next spin is any more or less likely than if the last spin was black.
All betting systems that rely on patterns, when employed on casino edge games will result, on average, in the player losing money. Certain systems, such as the Martingale, described below, are extremely risky, because the worst-case scenario which is mathematically certain to happen, at some point may see the player chasing losses with ever-bigger bets until he runs out of money. The American mathematician Patrick Billingsley said  that no betting system can convert a subfair game into a profitable enterprise.
At least in the s, some professional gamblers were able to consistently gain an edge in roulette by seeking out rigged wheels not difficult to find at that time and betting opposite the largest bets. Whereas betting systems are essentially an attempt to beat the fact that a geometric series with initial value of 0. These schemes work by determining that the ball is more likely to fall at certain numbers.
Edward O. Thorp the developer of card counting and an early hedge-fund pioneer and Claude Shannon a mathematician and electronic engineer best known for his contributions to information theory built the first wearable computer to predict the landing of the ball in This system worked by timing the ball and wheel, and using the information obtained to calculate the most likely octant where the ball would fall. Ironically, this technique works best with an unbiased wheel though it could still be countered quite easily by simply closing the table for betting before beginning the spin.
In , several casinos in Britain began to lose large sums of money at their roulette tables to teams of gamblers from the USA. Upon investigation by the police, it was discovered they were using a legal system of biased wheel-section betting. As a result of this, the British roulette wheel manufacturer John Huxley manufactured a roulette wheel to counteract the problem. The new wheel, designed by George Melas, was called "low profile" because the pockets had been drastically reduced in depth, and various other design modifications caused the ball to descend in a gradual approach to the pocket area.
Thomas Bass , in his book The Eudaemonic Pie published as The Newtonian Casino in Britain , has claimed to be able to predict wheel performance in real time. The book describes the exploits of a group of University of California Santa Cruz students, who called themselves the Eudaemons , who in the late s used computers in their shoes to win at roulette.
This is an updated and improved version of Edward O. Thorp 's approach, where Newtonian Laws of Motion are applied to track the roulette ball's deceleration; hence the British title. In the early s, Gonzalo Garcia-Pelayo believed that casino roulette wheels were not perfectly random , and that by recording the results and analysing them with a computer, he could gain an edge on the house by predicting that certain numbers were more likely to occur next than the 1-in odds offered by the house suggested.
This he did at the Casino de Madrid in Madrid , Spain , winning , euros in a single day, and one million euros in total. Legal action against him by the casino was unsuccessful, it being ruled that the casino should fix its wheel. To defend against exploits like these, many casinos use tracking software, use wheels with new designs, rotate wheel heads, and randomly rotate pocket rings. At the Ritz London casino in March , two Serbs and a Hungarian used a laser scanner hidden inside a mobile phone linked to a computer to predict the sector of the wheel where the ball was most likely to drop.
The numerous even-money bets in roulette have inspired many players over the years to attempt to beat the game by using one or more variations of a martingale betting strategy , wherein the gambler doubles the bet after every loss, so that the first win would recover all previous losses, plus win a profit equal to the original bet. The problem with this strategy is that, remembering that past results do not affect the future, it is possible for the player to lose so many times in a row, that the player, doubling and redoubling his bets, either runs out of money or hits the table limit.
A large financial loss is certain in the long term if the player continued to employ this strategy. Another strategy is the Fibonacci system, where bets are calculated according to the Fibonacci sequence. Regardless of the specific progression, no such strategy can statistically overcome the casino's advantage, since the expected value of each allowed bet is negative.
The Reverse Martingale system, also known as the Paroli system, follows the idea of the martingale betting strategy , but reversed. Instead of doubling a bet after a loss the gambler doubles the bet after every win. The system creates a false feeling of eliminating the risk of betting more when losing, but, in reality, it has the same problem as the martingale strategy. By doubling bets after every win, one keeps betting everything he has won until he either stops playing, or loses it all.
The Labouchere System involves using a series of numbers in a line to determine the bet amount, following a win or a loss. Typically, the player adds the numbers at the front and end of the line to determine the size of the next bet. When he wins, he crosses out numbers and continues working on the smaller line.
If he loses, then he adds his previous bet to the end of the line and continues to work on the longer line. This is a much more flexible progression betting system and there is much room for the player to design his initial line to his own playing preference. This occurs because as the player loses, the average bet size in the line increases. The system, also called montant et demontant from French, meaning upwards and downwards , is often called a pyramid system.
It is based on a mathematical equilibrium theory devised by a French mathematician of the same name. Like the martingale, this system is mainly applied to the even-money outside bets, and is favored by players who want to keep the amount of their bets and losses to a minimum. The betting progression is very simple: After each loss, you add one unit to the next bet, and after each win, one unit is deducted from the next bet.
Starting with an initial bet of, say, 1 unit, a loss would raise the next bet to 2 units. If this is followed by a win, the next bet would be 1 units. This betting system relies on the gambler's fallacy—that the player is more likely to lose following a win, and more likely to win following a loss. There are numerous other betting systems that rely on this fallacy, or that attempt to follow 'streaks' looking for patterns in randomness , varying bet size accordingly.
Many betting systems are sold online and purport to enable the player to 'beat' the odds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the casino game. For other uses, see Roulette disambiguation. Game of chance. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 20 October London: Academic. Retrieved 8 February Scarne's new complete guide to gambling Fully rev. Retrieved 22 September
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Minicomputers, refrigerator-sized behemoths, were too expensive. They would have to build their own machine. Seeking help, they visited University of Washington and met Paul Gilbert, an electrical engineering student who agreed to help if Gates and Allen supplied the parts. Gilbert built their computer and became one-third owner in Traf-O-Data, the company they formed to sell their program.
After Gates finished high school with his impressive SAT score, he enrolled at Harvard but stayed in touch with Allen. After two restless years at UW, Allen dropped out and moved to Boston to work for Honeywell, a technology company. When Allen and Gates met up in , Allen showed his friend a copy of Popular Electronics that advertised a do-it-yourself kit of parts.
This, Gates knew, would bring him one step closer to realizing his dream. With an interpreter, anyone who knew BASIC could write their own software, a first for the embryonic home computing industry. Was MITS interested in acquiring it? He was interested in a demonstration. Gates and Allen scrambled. There was no interpreter. They had cast a line never expecting their white whale to bite. They rushed to Harvard, where Gates still attended, and worked in hour shifts.
Exhausted but in possession of their once-fictitious program, the friends flew to Albuquerque for their meeting with Roberts and loaded the paper tape containing the instructions for their creation. After several moments, the numeral 4 appeared. Swallowing a massive sigh of relief, he wrote instructions to draw squares and perform more arithmetic. Roberts was sold. To the dismay of his parents, Gates dropped out of Harvard and moved to Albuquerque that November. After a year, Gates and Allen ditched the hyphen and rebranded as Microsoft.
Their contract with MITS gave the company ownership of the program after it had paid out a certain amount of royalties. However, there was no clause preventing Gates and Allen from converting their interpreter to myriad other computing platforms that emerged. Three years and several million dollars in revenue later, they relocated to Bellevue, Washington, and pushed to realize the mission statement that Gates articulated.
That started with languages. Then you had weird things. Before the Empire became the Empire, it hosted multiple divisions and thousands of employees in six buildings spread across Bellevue and overseas. DOS was an opportunity. It wasn't part of any grand business plan," Robbie Bach explains. Timing was everything. As personal computers--which Gates and Allen knew as microcomputers like the Altair became more affordable, more businesses and consumers would adopt them.
DOS remained popular for so long that it outsold Windows for more than a decade. The company's growing influence was a beacon for engineers and savvy business types. When I joined in '88, I joined as a marketing person fresh out of Stanford. I fit into the company in the sense that I liked working my ass off. I'd say I was reasonably smart, but certainly not at the IQ of the average Microsoft technical person. But I was passionate; I loved the business of what we were doing. Microsoft's environment reflected the ambition of its co-founders and employees.
Unlike many workplaces, there were no cube farms arranged under the bright, sterile glare of florescent lights. Though prolific in programming languages and operating systems, Microsoft's fleet of engineers looked for other industries to dominate. Oh, it's with applications. Unlike interpreters and operating systems, applications development was a crowded field. Many operating systems existed across countless PC platforms, and with that came applications that fit some or all. Microsoft's Works, a set of productivity tools such as word processing and spreadsheets, competed against the likes of WordStar, WordPerfect, and Lotus Works gained traction by presenting a softer interface: Still text-based, but with a single-color background and menus at the top of the screen that users could interact with using a mouse.
Ed Fries played a critical role in the "productivity wars" against WordPerfect and Lotus. Following his internships, he kept in touch with the head of productivity software, who tantalized Fries with two opportunities: a new thing, and an old thing, though he offered no more details. The manager promised to try to get him a spot. Closer to Fries' graduation, the manager called back. He wanted to be part of something new and shiny.
When he learned the old thing entailed porting the Mac version of Microsoft Excel to Windows, he was pleasantly surprised. He'd get to work on one of Microsoft's biggest products as an understudy to Mark O'Brien, the team's technical lead who, like other managers, saw big things in store for Fries' future. They were responsible for everything. Fries was one of seven engineers responsible for translating the code for the Mac version of Excel to Windows, plus adding new features.
On Friday nights, shouts echoed down hallways littered with obstacles. Dark splashes stained the walls in an oddly spirograph pattern. The tinkle of breaking glass could be heard from far off. Engineers stalked the corridors brandishing clubs as they chased their diminutive fleeing target--a golf ball.
The game started as a way for Fries to kill time. Working long days and nights on Excel, Ed Fries had to wait 10 to 15 minutes for the changes he made to Excel's code to compile. To kill time, he brought a putter, golf ball, and hole into his office. His game migrated into the hallway when he transitioned to perfecting his long putt.
One night, Rick Powell, a technical lead, came upon him and challenged him to a putting game that wound throughout the serpentine building. With that, Swing Around the Wing became a Friday night staple. As more players joined, the game grew more elaborate. One engineer arranged full cans of Coca-Cola along one hall.
By the end of the night, fizzy liquid painted the walls. Aside from sprays of sugary lifeblood from soda cans and divots in walls, no serious injuries or deaths occurred following several years and approximately 50, strokes. Engineers decompressed without damaging company property.
As the project moved along, he learned DDE, or dynamic data exchange, a way to import live data into Excel, and incorporated it into his program. It showed how live data could come in and out of Excel, and all the logic for controlling a submarine was recalculated in real-time in the spreadsheet. Other developers entertained similar ideas. Fries was approached David Norris and Hans Spiller, two other employees who made little games during downtime under the label Bogus Software.
Nobody was complaining when we were golfing in the hallway in the middle of the night or doing other stuff. We were getting our jobs done on Excel and Word. Other than that, the programmers were left alone. Norris and Spiller wrote Taipei for Windows, splitting development time between the office and home.
They considered copyrighting the game under Microsoft but came up with their own label instead. When they learned of other Microsoft developers writing fun programs, they invited them to join them just for fun. That gave Fries an idea. To learn to program for Macs, Fries challenged himself to update Fish so the fish swam behind open folders and other windows on Apple's interface. Another programmer, Tom Saxton, took notice and suggested Fries write an editor so people could make their own fish.
Fries had no time but half-jokingly invited Saxton to do it. A short time later, Saxton produced the editor. They teamed up to package the editor and screensaver together, offering Mac and Windows versions in the same package. Fries liked the name Bogus Software but didn't want to step on Norris's or Spiller's toes, so he got permission from them to change the label.
Fries and Saxton released the program for free, with an invitation. Floppies containing fish arrived, as did a few donations. We said, 'Well, we should probably form a company so we can cash these checks. It seems like a waste to have a pile of checks. They opened a bank account and cashed the checks, then took their bogus-turned-semi-lucrative venture further.
They could release a shareware version, a program free to use but offering special features for anyone willing to pay for them. Fish became free, but the editor was available only to paying customers. The program caught on, and more checks rolled in. We got checks from Timbuktu, almost everywhere in the world. We got weird money orders we couldn't cash. I had boxes full of letters. Once, Fries went to the PO box and withdrew an envelope that contained no check.
It did, however, hold a letter. I thought that was good. It was super-fun and we were just doing it on the side. Other side projects took on a life of their own. When the coders experimented with networking features, one of the guys encouraged everyone to write their version of poker. Once they finished, everyone would weigh on the best version, and they'd use it to play against one another over a network connection. Fries and a handful of others rose to the task. When none of them felt like drawing graphics for a deck of cards, Wes Cherry, an intern, ripped graphics from a card game for DOS.
Fortuitously, someone else found a DLL file--dynamic link library, a chunk of code that programmers can transplant into Windows programs to make add features--that dealt cards on the screen to begin the poker game. The guys copied the file into their poker games. Meanwhile, Cherry implemented it in one of his own projects. That's where it came from. Windows Reversi and Windows Solitaire were two of the earliest games published under the Microsoft banner, but not the first.
One of the reasons Paul Allen and Bill Gates moved to Seattle was the arduous task they had inveigling sharp engineers to live in New Mexico. Bob Greenberg and Gordon Letwin, two of Microsoft's first 11 hires, proved exceptions.
Letwin came aboard in '78 and remained until , making him the second-longest tenured developer next to Gates. Crowther wrote and uploaded the game on a PDP mainframe and uploaded it to a network of computers maintained by universities, laboratories, and the military.
Solving the game became a rite of passage for students and personnel who happened across it. Letwin was one such and endeavored to recreate the game for the PC. In , fellow Microsoft engineer Timothy W. Smith wrote Olympic Decathlon. Both games were published under Microsoft Consumer Products. Both barely qualified as blips on Microsoft's radar.
The productivity wars remained the company's focus, but the company hoped Windows 3. The Bottoms Up drinking game features fun and feisty cards that encourage players to bond over booze, banter and bad decisions. Cocobean Gifts is a lifestyle subscription brand, with a gifting and brand discovery platform. Re imagining the gift box in an inclusive way. Sincerely Nude is a nude clothing brand celebrating women of all shades, are breaking stereotypes one shade at a time.
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